Bertolotti L, Kitron U, Goldberg TL, 2007. Diversity and evolution of West Nile virus in Illinois and the United States, 2002–2005. Virol 360 :143–149.
Owen J, Moore F, Panella N, Edwards E, Bru R, Hughes M, Komar N, 2006. Migrating birds as dispersal vehicles for West Nile virus. EcoHealth 3 :79–85.
Peterson AT, Vieglais DA, Andreasen JK, 2003. Migratory birds modeled as critical transport agents for West Nile virus in North America. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 3 :27–37.
Rappole JH, Compton BW, Leimgruber P, Robertson J, King DI, Renner SC, 2006. Modeling movement of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6 :128–139.
Rappole JH, Hubálek Z, 2003. Migratory birds and West Nile virus. J Appl Microbiol 94 :47S–58S.
Marra PP, Griffing S, Caffrey C, Kilpatrick AM, McLean R, Brand C, Saito E, Dupuis AP, Kramer L, Novak R, 2004. West Nile virus and wildlife. Bioscience 54 :393–402.
Fang Y, Reisen WK, 2006. Previous infection with West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses provides cross protection during reinfection in house finches. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 :480–485.
Beveroth TA, Ward MP, Lampman RL, Ringia AM, Novak RJ, 2006. Changes in seroprevalence of West Nile virus across Illinois in free-ranging birds from 2001 through 2004. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 :174–179.
Gibbs SEJ, Allison AB, Yabsley MJ, Mead DG, Wilcox BR, Stallknecht DE, 2006. West Nile virus antibodies in avian species of Georgia, USA: 2000–2004. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6 :57–72.
Godsey MS, Blackmore MS, Panella NA, Burkhalter K, Gottfried K, Halsey LA, Rutledge R, Langevin SA, Gates R, Lamonte KM, Lambert A, Lanciotti RS, Blackmore CGM, Loyless T, Stark L, Oliveri R, Conti L, Komar N, 2005. West Nile virus epizootiology in the southeastern United States, 2001. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5 :82–89.
Komar N, Panella NA, Burns JE, Dusza SW, Mascarenhas TM, Talbot TO, 2001. Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in the New York City vicinity during an outbreak in 1999. Emerg Infect Dis 7 :621–625.
Komar N, Panella NA, Langevin SA, Brault AC, Amador M, Edwards E, Owen JC, 2005. Avian hosts for West Nile virus in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, 2002. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 :1031–1037.
Gibbs SEJ, Hoffman DM, Stark LM, Marlenee NL, Blitvich BJ, Beaty BJ, Stallknecht DE, 2005. Persistence of antibodies to West Nile virus in naturally infected rock pigeons (Columba livia). Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12 :665–667.
Nemeth NM, Kratz GE, Bates R, Scherpelz JA, Bowen RA, Komar N, 2008. Naturally induced humoral immunity to West Nile virus infection in raptors. EcoHealth 5 :298–304.
Wilcox BR, Yabsley MJ, Ellis AE, Stallknecht DE, Gibbs SEJ, 2007. West Nile virus antibody prevalence in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and fish crows (Corvus ossifragus) in Georgia, USA. Avian Dis 51 :125–128.
Lowther PE, Cink CL, 1992. House sparrow (Passer domesticus). Poole A, Stettenheim P, Gill F, eds. The Birds of North America. Washington, DC: The Academy of Natural Sciences, The American Ornithologist’s Union, 1–20.
Nemeth NM, Beckett S, Edwards E, Klenk K, Komar N, 2007. Avian mortality surveillance for West Nile virus in Colorado. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 :431–437.
Bunning ML, Bowen RA, Cropp CB, Sullivan KG, Davis BS, Komar N, Godsey MS, Baker D, Hettler DL, Holmes DA, Biggerstaff BJ, Mitchell CJ, 2002. Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 8 :380–386.
Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, 1995. Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial, and chlamydial infections. Lennette EH, Lennette DA, Lennette ET, eds. Arboviruses. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 189–212.
Komar N, Langevin S, Hinten S, Nemeth N, Edwards E, Hettler D, Davis B, Bowen R, Bunning M, 2003. Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 9 :311–322.
Apperson CS, Hassan HK, Harrison BA, Savage HM, Aspen SE, Farajollahi A, Crans W, Daniels TJ, Falco RC, Benedict M, Anderson M, McMillen L, Unnasch TR, 2004. Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4 :71–82.
Kilpatrick AM, Daszak P, Jones MJ, Marra PP, Kramer LD, 2006. Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission. Proc R Soc B: Biol Sci 273 :2327–2333.
Savage HM, Aggarwal D, Apperson CS, Katholi CR, Gordon E, Hassan HK, Anderson M, Charnetzky D, McMillen L, Unnasch EA, Unnasch TR, 2007. Host choice and West Nile virus infection rates in blood-fed mosquitoes, including members of the Culex pipiens complex, from Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee, 2002–2003. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 7 :365–386.
Reisen WK, Chiles BE, Green EN, Fang Y, Mahmood F, 2003. Previous infection protects house finches from re-infection with St. Louis encephalitis virus. J Med Entomol 40 :300–305.
Fine PEM, 1993. Herd immunity: history, theory, practice. Epidemiol Rev 15 :265–302.
Gruwell JA, Fogarty CL, Bennett SG, Challet GL, Vanderpool KS, Jozan M, Webb JP, 2000. Role of peridomestic birds in the transmission of St. Louis encephalitis virus in southern California. J Wildl Dis 36 :13–34.
McLean RG, Mullenix J, Kerschner J, Hamm J, 1983. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) as a sentinel for St. Louis encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 :1120–1129.
Reisen WK, Kramer LD, Chiles RE, Green EGN, Martinez VM, 2001. Encephalitis virus persistence in California birds: preliminary studies with house finches. J Med Entomol 38 :393–399.
Reisen WK, Chiles RE, Kramer LD, Martinez VM, Eldridge BF, 2000. Method of infection does not alter response of chicks and house finches to western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. J Med Entomol 37 :250–258.
Styer LM, Bernard KA, Kramer LD, 2006. Enhanced early West Nile virus infection in young chickens infected by mosquito bite: effect of viral dose. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 :337–345.
Langevin SA, Bunning M, Davis B, Komar N, 2001. Experimental infection of chickens as candidate sentinels for West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 7 :726–729.
McLean RG, Ubico SR, Docherty DE, Hansen WR, Sileo L, McNamara TS, 2001. West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds. Ann NY Acad Sci 951 :54–57.
Swayne DE, Beck JR, Smith CS, Shieh WJ, Zaki SR, 2001. Fatal encephalitis and myocarditis in young domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) caused by West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 7 :751–753.
Langevin SA, Brault AC, Panella NA, Bowen RA, Komar N, 2005. Variation in virulence of West Nile virus strains for house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 :99–102.
Diamond MS, Shrestha B, Marri A, Mahan D, Engle M, 2003. B cells and antibody play critical roles in the immediate defense of disseminated infection by West Nile encephalitis virus. J Virol 77 :2578–2586.
Diamond MS, Sitati EM, Friend LD, Higgs S, Shrestha B, Engle M, 2003. Critical role for induced IgM in the protection against West Nile virus infection. J Exp Med 198 :1853–1862.
Nemeth NM, Hahn DC, Gould DH, Bowen RA, 2006. Experimental West Nile virus infection in Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio). Avian Dis 50 :252–258.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||294||156||2|
The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a common and abundant amplifying host of West Nile virus (WNV) and many survive infection and develop humoral immunity. We experimentally inoculated house sparrows with WNV and monitored duration and protection of resulting antibodies. Neutralizing antibody titers remained relatively constant for ≥ 36 months (N = 42) and provided sterilizing immunity for up to 36 months post-inoculation in 98.6% of individuals (N = 72). These results imply that immune house sparrows are protected from WNV infection for multiple transmission seasons. Additionally, individuals experiencing WNV-associated mortality reached significantly higher peak viremia titers than survivors, and mortality during acute infection was significantly higher in caged versus free-flight sparrows. A better understanding of the long-term immunity and mortality rates in birds is valuable in interpreting serosurveillance and diagnostic data and modeling transmission and disease dynamics.