Childhood Coinfections with Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma mansoni Result in Lower Percentages of Activated T Cells and T Regulatory Memory Cells than Schistosomiasis Only

Erick M. O. Mouk Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, and the Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia

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Pauline N. M. Mwinzi Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, and the Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia

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Carla L. Black Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, and the Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia

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Jennifer M. Carter Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, and the Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia

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Zipporah W. Ng’ang’a Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, and the Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia

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Michael M. Gicheru Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, and the Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia

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W. Evan Secor Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, and the Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia

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Diana M. S. Karanja Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, and the Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia

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Daniel G. Colley Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, and the Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia

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Flow cytometric analyses were performed to evaluate HLA-DR + activated T lymphocytes (Tact; CD3 +/CD4 +/CD25medium) and T regulatory cells (Treg; CD3 +/CD4+/CD25high) in the circulation of children 8–10 years of age living in an area endemic for both Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya. Those children with only S. mansoni had a higher mean percentage of HLA-DR + Tact than those who were co-infected with these two intravascular parasites. The proportion of circulating Treg was comparable in children with only schistosomiasis and both schistosomiasis and malaria. However, the mean level of memory Treg (Treg expressing CD45RO +) in those with dual infections was lower than in children with schistosomiasis alone. These imbalances in Tact and Treg memory subsets in children infected with both schistosomiasis and malaria may be related to the differential morbidity or course of infection attributed to coinfections with these parasites.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Daniel G. Colley, Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, Coverdell Center, Room 330B, University of Georgia, 500 D.W. Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, E-mail: dcolley@uga.edu.
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