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A community-based, case-control study was carried out to investigate risk factors for scrub typhus in South Korea. Cases (n = 299) were defined as persons who were diagnosed serologically within the past two weeks. Two neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for sex, age, and occupation. Taking a rest directly on the grass, working in short sleeves, working with bare hands, and squatting to defecate or urinate posed the highest risks, with adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.7 (1.2–2.3), 1.6 (1.1–2.4), 1.7 (1.2–2.4), and 2.0 (1.4–2.9), respectively. Wearing a long-sleeved shirt while working, keeping work clothes off the grass, and always using a mat to rest outdoors showed protective associations, with aORs and 95% CIs of 0.5 (0.3–0.9), 0.6 (0.4–0.9), and 0.7 (0.5–0.9), respectively. These results might be useful in the establishment of a detailed control strategy for scrub typhus.