• 1

    Barbara S, 2002. Focus on Plasmodium vivax. Trends Parasitol 18 :287–289.

  • 2

    Piscot S, 2006. Is Plasmodium vivax still a paradigm for uncomplicated malaria? Med Mal Infect 36 :406–413.

  • 3

    Beg MA, Khan R, Baig SM, Gulzar Z, Hussain R, Smego RA, 2002. Cerebral involvement in benign tertian malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 :230–232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Mohapatra MK, Padhiary KN, Mishra DP, Sethy G, 2002. Atypical manifestations of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Indian J Malariol 39 :18–25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Kochar DK, Saxena V, Singh N, Kochar SK, Kumar SV, Das A, 2005. Plasmodium vivax malaria. Emerg Infect Dis 11 :132–134.

  • 6

    Ozen M, Gungor S, Atambay M, Daldal N, 2006. Cerebral malaria owing to Plasmodium vivax: case report. Ann Trop Paediatr 26 :141–144.

  • 7

    Koibuchi T, Nakamura T, Miura T, Endo T, Nakamura H, Takahashi T, Kim HS, Wataya Y, Washizaki K, Yoshikawa K, Iwamoto A, 2003. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Plasmodium vivax malaria. J Infect Chemother 9 :254–256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Kochar DK, Pakalapati D, Kochar SK, Sirohi P, Khatri MP, Kochar A, Das A, 2007. An unexpected cause of fever and seizures. Lancet 370 :908.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Nautiyal A, Singh S, Parmeshwaran G, Disalle M, 2005. Hepatic dysfunction in a patient with Plasmodium vivax infection. MedGenMed 7 :8.

  • 10

    Kumar S, Melzer M, Dodds P, Watson J, Ord R, 2007. P. vivax malaria complicated by shock and ARDS. Scand J Infect Dis 39 :255–256.

  • 11

    Tanios MA, Kogelman L, McGovern B, Hassoun PM, 2001. Acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating Plasmodium vivax malaria. Crit Care Med 29 :665–667.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Habib AG, Singh KS, 2004. Respiratory distress in non-immune adults with imported malaria. Infection 32 :356–359.

  • 13

    Parren A, Beretta F, Schubarth P, 1998. ARDS in Plasmodium vivax malaria. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 128 :1020–1023.

  • 14

    Taylor WR, Canon V, White NJ, 2006. Pulmonary manifestations of malaria: recognition and management. Treat Respir Med 5 :419–428.

  • 15

    Rifakis PM, Hernandez O, Fernandez CT, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Von A, Franco-Paredes C, 2008. Atypical Plasmodium vivax malaria in a traveler: bilateral hydronephrosis, severe thrombocytopenia and hypotension. J Travel Med 15 :119–121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Oh MD, Shin H, Shin D, Kim U, Lee S, Kim N, Choi MH, Chai JY, Choe K, 2001. Clinical features of vivax malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 :143–146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Kaur D, Wasir V, Gulati S, Bagga A, 2007. Unusual presentation of Plasmodium vivax malaria with severe thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. J Trop Pediatr 53 :210–212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Mehta KS, Halankar AR, Makwana PD, Torane PP, Shah VB, 2001. Severe acute renal failure in malaria. J Postgrad Med 47 :24–26.

  • 19

    Naqvi R, Ahmad E, Akhtar F, Naqvi A, Rizvi A, 2003. Outcome in severe acute renal failure associated with malaria. Nephrol Dial Transplant 18 :1820–1823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Prakash J, Singh AK, Kumar NS, Saxena RK, 2003. Acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria. JAPI 51 :265–267.

  • 21

    Makkar RP, Mukhopadhyay S, Monga A, Gupta AK, 2002. Plasmodium vivax malaria presenting with severe thrombocytopenia. Braz J Infect Dis 6 :263–265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Kakkar A, Bhoi S, Prakash V, Kakar S, 1999. Profound thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax malaria. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 35 :243–244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Komoda M, Fujimoto T, Kawaguchi Y, Tsushima H, Fukushima T, Hata T, Miyazaki Y, Tsukasaki K, Tomonaga M, 2006. Plasmodium vivax malaria with clinical presentation mimicking acute type idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Rinsho Ketsueki 47 :1453–1456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Agarwal A, Rath S, Shashiraj, 2005. Plasmodium vivax malaria presenting with severe thrombocytopenia. J Trop Pediatr 51 :120–121.

  • 25

    Lacerda MVG, Alexandre MAA, Santos PD, Arcanjo ARL, Alecrim WD, Alecrim MGC, 2004. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura due to vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Acta Trop 90 :187–190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    WHO 2000. Severe falciparum malaria. Transaction Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94.

  • 27

    Genton B, D’Acremont V, Rare L, Baea K, Reeder JC, Alpers MP, Muller I, 2008. Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections are associated with severe malaria in children: a prospective cohort study from Papua New Guinea. PLoS Med 5 :1–9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Tjitra E, Nicholas MA, Sugiarto P, Warikar N, Kenangalem E, Karyana M, Lampah DA, Price RN, 2008. Multi drug resistant Plasmodium vivax associated with severe and fatal malaria: a prospective study in Papua, Indonesia. PLoS Med 5 :1–10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Kochar DK, Singh P, Agarwal P, Kochar SK, Pokharna R, Sareen PK, 2003. Malarial hepatitis. J Assoc Physicians India 51 :1069–1072.

  • 30

    Kochar DK, Agarwal RP, Kochar SK, Jain R, Rawat N, Pokharna RK, Kachhawaha S, Srivastava T, 2003. Hepatocyte dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. QJM 96 :505–512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Kochar DK, Kaswana K, Kochar SK, Sirohi P, Pal M, Kochar A, Agarwal RP, Das A, 2006. Comparative study of regression of jaundice in patients of malaria and acute viral hepatitis. J Vector Borne Dis 43 :123–129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Ozen M, Gungor S, Atambay M, Dalal N, 2006. Cerebral malaria owing to Plasmodium vivax: case report. Ann Trop Paediatr 26 :141–144.

  • 33

    Chakravarty A, Ghosh B, Bhattacharyya R, Sengupta S, Mukherjee S, 2004. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy following Plasmodium vivax malaria. Neurol India 52 :130–131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Kochar DK, Sirohi P, Kochar SK, Bindal D, Kochar A, Jhajharia A, Goswami J, 2007. Post-malaria neurological syndrome–a case of bilateral facial palsy after Plasmodium vivax malaria. J Vector Borne Dis 44 :227–229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Nicholas MA, Handojo T, Michael CF, Tjitra E, Price RN, Graeme PM, 2007. Lung injury in vivax malaria: pathological evidence for pulmonary vascular sequestration and posttreatment alveolar inflammation. JID 195 :589–596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Clark IA, Cowden WB, 1999. Why is the pathology of falciparum worse than that of vivax malaria? Parasitol Today 15 :458–461.

  • 37

    Nosten F, McGready R, Simpson JA, Thwai KL, Balkan S, Cho T, Hkirijaroen L, Looareesuwan S, White NJ, 1999. Effects of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnancy. Lancet 354 :546–549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Jayavanth S, Park BC, 2007. Microrheologic dysfunctions in blood during malaria. Indian J Exp Biol 45 :111–120.

  • 39

    Mendis K, Sina BJ, Marchesini P, Carter R, 2001. The neglected burden of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 :97–106.

  • 40

    Rogerson SJ, Carter R, 2008. Severe vivax malaria: newly recognized or rediscovery? PLoS Med 5 :1–3.

Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 2 2 2
Full Text Views 878 290 8
PDF Downloads 430 84 7
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Severe Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Report on Serial Cases from Bikaner in Northwestern India

Dhanpat K. KocharDepartment of Medicine, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Search for other papers by Dhanpat K. Kochar in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ashish DasDepartment of Medicine, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Search for other papers by Ashish Das in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sanjay K. KocharDepartment of Medicine, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Search for other papers by Sanjay K. Kochar in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Vishal SaxenaDepartment of Medicine, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Search for other papers by Vishal Saxena in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Parmendra SirohiDepartment of Medicine, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Search for other papers by Parmendra Sirohi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Shilpi GargDepartment of Medicine, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Search for other papers by Shilpi Garg in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Abhishek KocharDepartment of Medicine, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Search for other papers by Abhishek Kochar in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Mahesh P. KhatriDepartment of Medicine, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Search for other papers by Mahesh P. Khatri in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Vikas GuptaDepartment of Medicine, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Search for other papers by Vikas Gupta in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
View More View Less
Restricted access

Epidemiologic studies and clinical description of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in adults living in malaria-endemic areas are rare and more attention is needed to understand the dynamics and its interaction with the immune system. This observational study included 1,091 adult patients admitted to medical wards of S. P. Medical College and associated group of hospitals in Bikaner, India from September 2003 through December 2005. The diagnosis of P. vivax malaria was established by peripheral blood film (PBF), rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and severe malaria was categorized as per World Health Organization guidelines. Of 1,091 patients with malaria, 635 had P. falciparum malaria and 456 had P. vivax malaria. Among patients with severe manifestations, 40 had evidence of monoinfection of P. vivax malaria diagnosed by PBF, RDT, and PCR. Complications observed were hepatic dysfunction and jaundice in 23 (57.5%) patients, renal failure in 18 (45%) patients, severe anemia in 13 (32.5%) patients, cerebral malaria in 5 patients (12.5%), acute respiratory distress syndrome in 4 patients (10%), shock in 3 patients (7.5%), and hypoglycemia in 1 (2.5%) patient. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 5 (12.5%) patients, and multi-organ dysfunction was detected in 19 (47.5%) patients. Further large-scale multicentric epidemiologic studies are needed to define the basic pathology of this less known entity.

Save