• 1

    World Health Organization, 2002. Urbanization: an increasing risk factor for leishmaniasis. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 44 :365–372.

  • 2

    Myles O, Wortmann GW, Cummings JF, Barthel RV, Patel S, Crum-Cianflone NF, Negin NS, Weina PJ, Ockenhouse CF, Joyce DJ, Magill AJ, Aronson NE, Gasser RA, 2007. Visceral leishmaniasis: clinical observations in 4 US Army soldiers deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq, 2002–2004. Arch Intern Med 167 :1899–1901.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Burns JA, Shreffler WG, Benson DR, Ghalib HW, Badaro R, Reed SG, 1993. Molecular characterization of a kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania chagasi that detects specific antibody in African and American visceral leishmaniasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90 :775–779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Chappuis F, Rijal S, Alonso S, Menten J, Boelaert M, 2006. A meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis. BMJ 333 :723–727.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Schallig H, Canto-Cavalheiro M, Silva E, 2002. Evaluation of the direct agglutination test and the rK39 dipstick test for the sero-diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97 :1015–1018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Braz R, Nascimento E, Martins D, Wilson ME, Pearson RD, Reed SG, Jeronimo SM, 2002. The sensitivity and specificity of Leishmania chagasi recombinant K39 antigen in the diagnosis of American visceral leishmaniasis and in differentiating active from subclinical infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 :344–348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Ozensoy S, Ozbel Y, Turgay N, Alkan MZ, Gul K, Gilman-Sachs A, Chang KP, Reed SG, Ozcel MA, 1998. Serodiagnosis and epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Turkey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :363–369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Wortmann G, Hochberg L, Houng HH, Sweeney C, Zapor M, Aronson N, Weina P, Ockenhouse CF, 2005. Rapid identification of Leishmania complexes by a real-time PCR assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 :999–1004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Kreutzer RD, Semko ME, Hendricks LD, Wright N, 1983. Identification of Leishmania spp. by multiple isozyme analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 :703–715.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Zijlstra E, Nur Y, Desjeux P, Khalil EA, El-Hassan AM, Groen J, 2001. Diagnosing visceral leishmaniasis with the recombinant K39 strip test: experience from the Sudan. Trop Med Int Health 6 :108–113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Singh S, Kumari V, Singh N, 2002. Predicting kala-azar disease manifestations in asymptomatic patients with latent Leishmania donovani infection by detection of antibody against recombinant K39 antigen. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9 :568–572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Sundar S, Pai K, Sahu M, Kumar V, Murray HW, 2002. Immunochromatographic strip-test detection of anti-K39 antibody in Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 :19–23.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Menzel S, Bienzle U, 1978. Antibody response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis of the Old World. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 29 :194–197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Positive rK39 Serologic Assay Results in US Servicemen with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

View More View Less
  • 1 Infectious Diseases Division, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; Division of Infectious Disease, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Department of Clinical Investigation, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia
Restricted access

The rK39 test is a serologic assay for the rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Serum from a North American cohort of 59 otherwise asymptomatic soldiers with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was tested with the rK39 dipstick and ELISA assays, and 10.2% and 28.8% had positive results, respectively. CL is associated with a reactive rK39 assay result in some patients without clinical evidence of VL.

Save