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Molecular Mass Screening to Incriminate Sand Fly Vectors of Andean-type Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ecuador and Peru

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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan; Sección de Entomología, Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrion,” Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Laboratorio de Entomología, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú; Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Ecuador; Department of Microbiology, School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

Sand flies from the Andean areas of Ecuador and Peru were examined for Leishmania infections by using our recently established molecular mass screening method. Leishmanial minicircle DNA-positive sand flies were detected in 3 of 192 and 1 of 462 samples from Ecuador and Peru, respectively. Sand fly species were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, and the positive flies were Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis and Lu. peruensis, respectively. Furthermore, cytochrome b and mannose-phosphate isomerase gene sequence analyses identified the parasites from Ecuador and Peru as Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (Viannia) peruviana, respectively. Thus, the mass screening method was confirmed to be a powerful tool for sand fly research.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Hirotomo Kato, Department of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan, Tel/Fax: +81-83-933-5900, E-mail: katoh@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp.
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