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We recently reported the production of the recombinant kinesin-related protein of Leishmania donovani with a molecular weight of 42 kd (rKRP42) and the value of the antigen in serum-based ELISA for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, the rKRP42 antigen was validated with ELISA using urine samples (rKRP42 urine ELISA). The urine-based ELISA showed 94% sensitivity (108 positives among 115 VL samples) and 99.6% specificity (239 negatives among 240 non-VL samples). The sensitivity and specificity are almost similar to our previous results by ELISA with acetone-treated L. donovani promastigote antigen and direct agglutination test, both methods being done by use of urine samples. A comparison of the rKRP42 urine ELISA with the commercially available urinary antigen detection kit (KAtex) using 108 VL samples showed much higher sensitivity of the ELISA (96.3%) than KAtex (55.6%). The use of the rKRP42 antigen with urine samples will facilitate epidemiologic studies.