Impregnated Netting Slows Infestation by Triatoma infestans

Michael Z. Levy Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Victor R. Quíspe-Machaca Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Jose L. Ylla-Velasquez Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Lance A. Waller Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Jean M. Richards Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Bruno Rath Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Katty Borrini-Mayori Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Juan G. Cornejo del Carpio Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Eleazar Cordova-Benzaquen Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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F. Ellis McKenzie Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Robert A. Wirtz Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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James H. Maguire Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Robert H. Gilman Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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Caryn Bern Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina Y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru; Dirección Regional del Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa, Peru; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

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We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease.

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