• 1

    Gubler DJ, Halstead SB, Rodhain F, Rosen L, Kuno G, George R, Lum LCS, Bhamarapravati N, Nimmannitya S, Westaway EG, Blok J, Chang GJ, Gubler DJ, Kuno G, 1997. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. London: CAB International.

  • 2

    Lanciotti RS, Calisher CH, Gubler DJ, Chang GJ, Vorndam AV, 1992. Rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses from clinical samples by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30 :545–551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Tran A, Deparis X, Dussart P, Morvan J, Rabarison P, Remy F, Polidori L, Gardon J, 2004. Dengue spatial and temporal patterns, French Guiana, 2001. Emerg Infect Dis 10 :615–621.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Morrison AC, Getis A, Santiago M, Rigau-Perez JG, Reiter P, 1998. Exploratory space-time analysis of reported dengue cases during an outbreak in Florida, Puerto Rico, 1991–1992. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 :287–298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Beckett CG, Kosasih H, Faisal I, Nurhayati, Tan R, Widjaja S, Listiyaningsih E, Ma’roef C, Wuryadi S, Bangs MJ, Samsi TK, Yuwono D, Hayes CG, Porter KR, 2005. Early detection of dengue infections using cluster sampling around index cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 :777–782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Chen WJ, Chen SL, Chien LJ, Chen CC, King CC, Harn MR, Hwang KP, Fang JH, 1996. Silent transmission of the dengue virus in southern Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 :12–16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Ali M, Wagatsuma Y, Emch M, Breiman RF, 2003. Use of a geographic information system for defining spatial risk for dengue transmission in Bangladesh: role for Aedes albopictus in an urban outbreak. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69 :634–640.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    King CC, Wu YC, Chao DY, Kao CL, Wang HT, Chiang L, Ku CC, Chang HJ, Chow L, Lin TH, Chien LJ, Huang JS, Huang KP, Han MR, Gubler D, 2000. Major epidemics of dengue in Taiwan in 1981–2000: related to the intensive virus activities in Asia and public health surveillance. Dengue Bull 24 :1–10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Siqueira JB, Martelli CM, Maciel IJ, Oliveira RM, Ribeiro MG, Amorim FP, Moreira BC, Cardoso DD, Souza WV, Andrade AL, 2004. Household survey of dengue infection in central Brazil: spatial point pattern analysis and risk factors assessment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 :646–651.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Chen C-H, Lee L-C, Chen C-Y, Chunag M-H, Lin Y-D, Tseng Y-C, Ku T-C, 1998. The Survey of the Household Travel Characteristics in Kaohsiung Metropolitan. Taipei: Institute of Transportation Ministry of Transportation and Communications.

  • 11

    Wang CH, Chang NT, Wu H, Hm Ho CM, 2000. Integrated control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Liu-Chiu Village, Ping-Tung County, Taiwan. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 16 :93–99.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Chao DY, Lin TH, Hwang KP, Huang JH, Liu CC, King CC, 2004. 1998 dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemic in Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis 10 :552–554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Shu PY, Chen LK, Chang SF, Yueh YY, Chow L, Chien LJ, Chin C, Lin TH, Huang JH, 2001. Antibody to the nonstructural protein NS1 of Japanese encephalitis virus: potential application of mAb-based indirect ELISA to differentiate infection from vaccination. Vaccine 19 :1753–1763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Kuno G, Gubler DJ, Velez M, Oliver A, 1985. Comparative sensitivity of three mosquito cell lines for isolation of dengue viruses. Bull World Health Organ 63 :279–286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    CRIMESTAT II, 2002. A Spatial Statistics Program for the Analysis of Crime Incident Locations. [computer program]. Version 2.0. Houston, TX: Ned Levine & Associates.

  • 16

    Gatrell AC, Bailey TC, Diggle P, Rowlingson BS, 1996. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis and its Application in Geographical Epidemiology. Trans Inst Br Geogr NS. 2 :256–274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Bailey TC, Gatrell AC, 1995. Interactive Spatial Data Analysis. London: Longman Scientific & Technical.

  • 18

    Wu M-H, 2003, Epidemiology of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever in southern Taiwan, 2001–2003. MS thesis, Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Naitonal Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

  • 19

    Haggett P, 2000. The Geographical Structure of Epidemic. New York: Oxford.

  • 20

    De BJ, Chow-Shaffer E, Costero A, Clark GG, Edman JD, Scott TW, 2003. Identification of the people from whom engorged Aedes aegypti took blood meals in Florida, Puerto Rico, using polymerase chain reaction-based DNA profiling. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :437–446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Deparis X, Roche C, Murgue B, Chungue E, 1998. Possible dengue sequential infection: dengue spread in a neighbourhood during the 1996/97 dengue-2 epidemic in French Polynesia. Trop Med Int Health 3 :866–871.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Getis A, Morrison AC, Gray K, Scott TW, 2003. Characteristics of the spatial pattern of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, in Iquitos, Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69 :494–505.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Harrington LC, Buonaccorsi JP, Edman JD, Costero A, Kittayapong P, Clark GG, Scott TW, 2001. Analysis of survival of young and old Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidac) from Puerto Rico and Thailand. J Med Entomol 38 :537–547.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Liew C, Curtis CF, 2004. Horizontal and vertical dispersal of dengue vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in Singapore. Med Vet Entomol 18 :351–360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Reiter P, Amador MA, Anderson RA, Clark GG, 1995. Short report: dispersal of Aedes aegypti in an urban area after blood feeding as demonstrated by rubidium-marked eggs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 :177–179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Lee MS, King CC, Chen CJ, Yang SY, Ho MS, 1995. Epidemiology of measles in Taiwan: dynamics of transmission and timeliness of reporting during an epidemic in 1988–9. Epidemiol Infect 114 :345–359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Lei HY, Huang JH, Huang KJ, Chang C, 2002. Status of dengue control programme in Taiwan, 2001. Dengue Bull 26 :14–23.

  • 28

    Scott TW, Amerasinghe PH, Morrison AC, Lorenz LH, Clark GG, Strickman D, Kittayapong P, Edman JD, 2000. Longitudinal studies of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand and Puerto Rico: blood feeding frequency. J Med Entomol 37 :89–101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Harrington LC, Scott TW, Lerdthusnee K, Coleman RC, Costero A, Clark GG, Jones JJ, Kitthawee S, Kittayapong P, Sithiprasasna R, Edman JD, 2005. Dispersal of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti within and between rural communities. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 :209–220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Honorio NA, Silva WC, Leite PJ, Goncalves JM, Lounibos LP, Lourencode-Oliveira R, 2003. Dispersal of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban endemic dengue area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98 :191–198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Sithiprasasna R, Patpoparn S, Attatippaholkun W, Suvannadabba S, Srisuphanunt M, 2004. The geographic information system as an epidemiological tool in the surveillance of dengue virus-infected Aedes mosquitos. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35 :918–926.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Cummings DA, Irizarry RA, Huang NE, Endy TP, Nisalak A, Ungchusak K, Burke DS, 2004. Travelling waves in the occurrence of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Thailand. Nature 427 :344–347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Burke DS, Nisalak A, Johnson DE, Scott RM, 1988. A prospective study of dengue infections in Bangkok. Am J Trop Med Hyg 38 :172–180.

  • 34

    Ocampo CB, Wesson DM, 2004. Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti from a dengue hyperendemic urban setting in Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 :506–513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Wen TH, Lin NH, Lin CH, King CC, Su MD, 2006. Spatial mapping of temporal risk characteristics to improve environmental health risk identification: a case study of a dengue epidemic in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 31 :31.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Montgomery BL, Ritchie SA, 2002. Roof gutters: a key container for Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 :244–246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Shu PY, Chien LJ, Chang SF, Su CL, Kuo YC, Liao TL, Ho MS, Lin TH, Huang JH, 2005. Fever screening at airports and imported dengue. Emerg Infect Dis 11 :460–462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two Clustering Diffusion Patterns Identified from the 2001–2003 Dengue Epidemic, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

View More View Less
  • 1 Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Center for Geographic Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Center for Disease Control in Taiwan, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Graduate Institute of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

This study analyzed the spatio-temporal patterns of 4,587 (94% of the total) confirmed dengue cases in Kaohsiung and Fengshan Cities (a two-city area) that occurred in Taiwan from 2001 to 2003. The epidemic had two simultaneous distinct diffusion patterns. One was a contiguous pattern, mostly limited to 1 km from an initial cluster, reflecting that there was a rapid dispersal of infected Aedes aegypti and viremic persons. The second followed a relocation pattern, involving clusters of cases that diffused over 10 weeks starting from the southern and moving to the northern parts of the two-city area. The virus from one clustering site jumped to several distant areas where it rapidly dispersed through a series of human–mosquito transmission cycles to several localities. In both patterns, transmission of disease quickly enlarged the epidemic areas. Future dengue control efforts would benefit from a timely syndromic surveillance system plus extensive public education on how to avoid further transmission.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Chwan-Chuen King, Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, No. 17, Xu-Zhou Road, Section 1, Taipei (10020), Taiwan, ROC, E-mail: cc_king99@hotmail.com.
Save