Balancing Individual Benefit Against Public Health Risk: The Impact of Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis in HIV-infected Patients on Antimicrobial Resistance

Davidson H. Hamer Center for International Health and Development, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of International Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

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Christopher J. Gill Center for International Health and Development, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of International Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

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  • 1

    Anglaret X, Chêne G, Attia A, Toure S, Lafont S, Combe P, Manlan K, N’Dri-Yoman T, Salamon R, 1999. Early chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole for HIV-1-infected adults in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire: a randomised trial. Lancet 353 :1463–1468.

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    Gill CJ, Sabin LL, Tham J, Hamer DH, 2004. Reconsidering cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-exposed African infants. Bull World Health Organ 82 :1–7.

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  • 5

    Hamel MJ, Greene C, Chiller T, Ouma P, Polyak C, Otieno K, Williamson J, Shi YP, Feikin DR, Marston B, Brooks JT, Poe A, Zhou Z, Ochieng B, Mintz E, Slutsker L, 2008. Does cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV-associated opportunistic infections select for resistant pathogens in Kenyan adults? Am J Trop Med Hyg 79 :320–330.

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    Gill CJ, Mwanakasale V, Fox MP, Chilengi R, Tembo M, Nsofwa M, Chalwe V, Mwananyanda L, Mukwamataba D, Malilwe B, Champo D, Macleod WB, Thea DM, Hamer DH, 2008. Effect of presumptive cotrimoxazole prophylaxis on pneumococcal colonization rates, seroepidemiology, and antibiotic resistance among Zambian infants. Bull World Health Organ (in press).

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    Straus WL, Qazi SA, Kundi Z, Nomani NK, Schwartz B, Pakistan Cotrimoxazole Study Group, 1998. Antimicrobial resistance and clinical effectiveness of cotrimoxazole versus amoxicillin for pneumonia among children in Pakistan: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 352 :270–274.

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