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In Vitro Activity of Artemisinin in Combination with Clotrimazole or Heat-treated Amphotericin B against Plasmodium falciparum

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  • 1 University of Delhi, Department of Zoology, North Campus Delhi University, Delhi 110007, India

Currently available artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria are inadequate. There remains an enormous unmet need for alternate artemisinin-based combination therapies. One of the fastest methods to identify promising artemisinin-based combination therapies is to look for synergistic or additive antimalarial interaction between artemisinin and an alternate drug against P. falciparum in vitro. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole are known drugs for treatment of human fungal infections. We repurposed clotrimazole or heat-treated amphotericin B in fixed ratio combination with artemisinin for antimalarial properties. Isobologram results show synergistic/additive interaction in both of the cases at therapeutically safe concentrations. Artemisinin, clotrimazole, and their synergistic combinations also decrease hemozoin production in parasitized erythrocytes. New permeation pathways induced in infected cells remain unaffected by drug combinations as indicated by sorbitol lysis. It would be interesting to extend the studies’ in vivo system.

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