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Oxidative and Nitrative Stress in Opisthorchis viverrini–Infected Hamsters: An Indirect Effect after Praziquantel Treatment

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  • 1 Department of Parasitology, Department of Biochemistry, and Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, and Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie, Japan; Department of Anatomy and Developmental Neurobiology Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan; Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Mie, Japan
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Praziquantel causes adverse effects after short-term treatment. To examine the mechanism of these effects, we studied the distribution of Opisthorchis viverrini antigens and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and antioxidant enzymes in O. viverrini-infected hamsters during short-term praziquantel treatment. Praziquantel-induced dispersion of parasite antigens produced a recruitment of inflammatory cells. NF-κB and iNOS mRNA expression was significantly elevated and associated with their immunoreactivity in the bile duct epithelium and inflammatory cells. Plasma nitrate, end products of nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde level increased significantly. Expression of mRNA for antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) also increased significantly, which suggests host defense against oxidative stress. These results suggest that short-term praziquantel treatment induces inflammation and resulting oxidative and nitrative stress through O. viverrini antigen release. Data in this study can be used as a basis to understand potential side effects of praziquantel treatment in humans.

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