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Nonmalarial acute undifferentiated fever (NMAUF) refers to a febrile illness with no indication of an organ-specific disease after diagnosis of malaria has been excluded. In developing countries, the empirical treatment of NMAUFs with antimalarial drugs continues even in the era of highly specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria. We carried out a retrospective review of patients with fever admitted to a rural teaching hospital in central India. We categorized patients with NMAUF into different clinical syndromes and determined their demographic profile, inhospital course, and the pattern of antimalarial use. The study sample included 1,197 adult patients who were investigated for malaria; 1,053 (88%) of them had NMAUF, and use of further diagnostics in this group was limited. Despite one or more negative tests for malaria, many patients (39.9%, 95% CI 37.0–43.3) received antimalarial drugs. These results suggest a need for guidelines and training to improve empirical treatment of NMAUF.