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An outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) disease associated with high fever and severe protracted arthralgias was detected in Lamu, Kenya, peaking in July 2004. At least 1,300 cases were documented. We conducted a seroprevalence study to define the magnitude of transmission on Lamu Island. We conducted a systematic cross-sectional survey. We administered questionnaires and tested 288 sera from Lamu residents for IgM and IgG antibodies to CHIKV. Chikungunya virus infection (seropositivity) was defined as a person with IgG and/or IgM antibodies to CHIKV. IgM antibodies to CHIKV were detected in 18% (53/288) and IgG antibodies in 72% (206/288); IgM and/or IgG antibodies were present in 75% (215/288). The seroprevalence findings suggested that the outbreak was widespread, affecting 75% of the Lamu population; extrapolating the findings to the entire population, 13,500 (95% CI, 12,458–14328) were affected. Vector control strategies are needed to control the spread of this mosquito-borne infection.