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Entomologic Investigations of a Chikungunya Virus Epidemic in the Union of the Comoros, 2005

Rosemary C. SangKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Ouledi AhmedKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Ousmane FayeKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Cindy L. H. KellyKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Ali Ahmed YahayaKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Ibrahim MmadiKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Ali ToilibouKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Kibet SergonKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Jennifer BrownKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Naftali AgataKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Allarangar YakouideKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Mamadou D. BallKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Robert F. BreimanKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Barry R. MillerKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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Ann M. PowersKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Health, Moroni, Union de les Comores; World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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From January to April 2005, an epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) illness occurred in the Union of Comoros. Entomological studies were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from March 11 to March 31, aimed at identifying the primary vector(s) involved in transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by backpack aspiration and human landing collection in homes and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water-holding containers were inspected for presence of mosquito larvae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR and cultivation in cells for the presence of CHIK virus and/or nucleic acid. A total of 2,326 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 199 pools. The collection consisted of 62.8% Aedes aegypti, 25.5% Culex species, and 10.7% Aedes simpsoni complex, Eretmapodites spp and Anopheles spp. Seven mosquito pools were found to be positive for CHIKV RNA and 1 isolate was obtained. The single CHIKV mosquito isolate was from a pool of Aedes aegypti and the minimum infection rate (MIR) for this species was 4.0, suggesting that Ae. aegypti was the principal vector responsible for the outbreak. This was supported by high container (31.1%), household (68%), and Breteau (126) indices, with discarded tires (58.8%) and small cooking and water storage vessels (31.1%) registering the highest container indices.

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