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Plasmodium falciparum, the most common malarial parasite in sub-Saharan Africa, accounts for a high number of deaths in children less than five years of age. In malaria-endemic countries with stable transmission, semi-immunity is usually acquired after childhood. For adults, severe malaria is rare. Infected adults have either uncomplicated malaria or asymptomatic parasitemia. During a period of one year, we screened 497 afebrile males to investigate the prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitemia in villages near Lambaréné, Gabon by use of three different methods. A total of 52% of the individuals had parasites detected by a subtelomeric variable open reading frame polymerase chain reaction (stevor-PCR), 27% of the rapid diagnostic test results were positive, and 12% of the thick blood smears with low parasitemias had P. falciparum. Most positive cases were only detected by the stevor-PCR. Asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitemia in adults living in a malaria-endemic country is frequent.