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In January 2005, an epidemic of chikungunya fever broke out in the Comoro Islands and lasted until May 2005. In April, cases were also reported in Mayotte and Mauritius. On Réunion Island, the first cases were reported at the end of April. Surveillance of this epidemic required an adaptive system, which at first was based on active and retrospective case detection around the cases reported, then relied on a sentinel network when the incidence increased. Emerging and severe forms of infection were investigated. Death certificates were monitored. By April 2006, the surveillance estimate was 244,000 cases of chikungunya virus infection, including 123 severe cases and 41 of maternoneonatal transmission, with an overall attack rate of 35%. Chikungunya infection was mentioned on 203 death certificates and significant mortality was observed. This epidemic highlighted the need for a mutual strategy of providing information on arboviral diseases and their prevention and control between countries in the southwestern Indian Ocean.