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Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine has recently been adopted by many African countries to reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with malaria in pregnancy. We assessed the impact of a newly established national IPTp program on maternal and neonatal health in Gabon. Data on prevalence of maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection, anemia, premature birth, and birth weight were collected in cross-sectional surveys in urban and rural regions of Gabon before and after the implementation of IPTp in a total of 1403 women and their offspring. After introduction of IPTp, the prevalence of maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection decreased dramatically (risk ratio 0.16, P < 0.001). Whereas only a modest effect on the rate of anemia in pregnant women was observed, there was a marked benefit on the prevalence of low birth weight and premature birth for women adhering to national recommendations. These effects were most pronounced in primi- and secundigravid women.