Killeen GF, Seyoum A, Knols BG, 2004. Rationalizing historical successes of malaria control in Africa in terms of mosquito resource availability management. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 :87–93.
Killeen GF, Knols BG, Fillinger U, Beier JC, Gouagna LC, 2002. Interdisciplinary malaria vector research and training for Africa. Trends Parasitol 18 :433–434.
Kitron U, Spielman A, 1989. Suppression of transmission of malaria through source reduction: antianopheline measures applied in Israel, the United States, and Italy. Rev Infect Dis 11 :391–406.
Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna LC, Knols BG, 2002. Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons for malaria control in Africa? Lancet Infect Dis 2 :618–627.
Utzinger J, Tozan Y, Singer BH, 2001. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control. Trop Med Int Health 6 :677–687.
Fillinger U, Lindsay SW, 2006. Suppression of exposure to malaria vectors by an order of magnitude using microbial larvicides in rural Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 11 :1629–1642.
Taylor CE, Toure YT, Coluzzi M, Petrarca V, 1993. Effective population size and persistence of Anopheles arabiensis during the dry season in west Africa. Med Vet Entomol 7 :351–357.
Charlwood JD, Vij R, Billingsley PF, 2000. Dry season refugia of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in a dry savannah zone of east Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 :726–732.
Mbogo CN, Snow RW, Khamala CP, Kabiru EW, Ouma JH, Githure JI, Marsh K, Beier JC, 1995. Relationships between Plasmodium falciparum transmission by vector populations and the incidence of severe disease at nine sites on the Kenyan coast. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 :201–206.
Lindsay SW, Wilkins HA, Zieler HA, Daly RJ, Petrarca V, Byass P, 1991. Ability of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to transmit malaria during the dry and wet seasons in an area of irrigated rice cultivation in The Gambia. J Trop Med Hyg 94 :313–324.
Toure YT, Dolo G, Petrarca V, Traore SF, Bouare M, Dao A, Carnahan J, Taylor CE, 1998. Mark-release-recapture experiments with Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Banambani Village, Mali, to determine population size and structure. Med Vet Entomol 12 :74–83.
Fillinger U, Sonye G, Killeen GF, Knols BG, Becker N, 2004. The practical importance of permanent and semipermanent habitats for controlling aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes: operational observations from a rural town in western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 9 :1274–1289.
Omer SM, Cloudsley-Thompson JL, 1970. Survival of female Anopheles gambiae Giles through a 9-month dry season in Sudan. Bull World Health Organ 42 :319–330.
Dolo A, Camara F, Poudiougo B, Toure A, Kouriba B, Bagayogo M, Sangare D, Diallo M, Bosman A, Modiano D, Toure YT, Doumbo O, 2003. Epidemiology of malaria in a village of Sudanese savannah area in Mali (Bancoumana). 2. Entomo-parasitological and clinical study. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 96 :308–312.
Toure YT, Doumbo O, Toure A, Bagayoko M, Diallo M, Dolo A, Vernick KD, Keister DB, Muratova O, Kaslow DC, 1998. Gametocyte infectivity by direct mosquito feeds in an area of seasonal malaria transmission: implications for Bancoumana, Mali as a transmission-blocking vaccine site. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :481–486.
Favia G, Lanfrancotti A, Spanos L, Siden-Kiamos I, Louis C, 2001. Molecular characterization of ribosomal DNA polymorphisms discriminating among chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Insect Mol Biol 10 :19–23.
Service MW, 1993. Mosquito Ecology: Field Sampling Methods. London: Chapman and Hall.
Diuk-Wasser MA, Toure MB, Dolo G, Bagayoko M, Sogoba N, Traore SF, Manoukis N, Taylor CE, 2005. Vector abundance and malaria transmission in rice-growing villages in Mali. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 :725–731.
Coluzzi M, 1999. The clay feet of the malaria giant and its African roots: hypotheses and inferences about origin, spread and control of Plasmodium falciparum. Parassitologia 41 :277–283.
Kaufmann C, Briegel H, 2004. Flight performance of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles atroparvus. J Vector Ecol 29 :140–153.
Konradsen F, Matsuno Y, Amerasinghe FP, Amerasinghe PH, van der Hoek W, 1998. Anopheles culicifacies breeding in Sri Lanka and options for control through water management. Acta Trop 71 :131–138.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||170||137||4|
In Mali, anopheline mosquito populations increase sharply during the rainy season, but are barely detectable in the dry season. This study attempted to identify the dry season mosquito breeding population in and near the village of Bancoumana, Mali, and in a fishing hamlet 5 km from this village and adjacent to the Niger River. In Bancoumana, most larval habitats were human made, and dried out in January–February. In contrast, in the fishing hamlet, productive larval habitats were numerous and found mainly during the dry season (January–May) as the natural result of drying riverbeds. Adult mosquitoes were abundant during the dry season in the fishermen hamlet and rare in Bancoumana. To the extent that the fishermen hamlet mosquito population seeds Bancoumana with the advent of the rainy season, vector control in this small hamlet may be a cost-effective way to ameliorate malaria transmission in the 40-times larger village.