• 1

    Garcia HH, Wittner M, Coyle CM, Tanowitz HB, White AC Jr, 2006. Cysticercosis. Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, eds. Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, and Practice, Philadelphia: Churchill-Livingstone, 1289–1303.

  • 2

    Garcia HH, Del Brutto OH, 2005. Neurocysticercosis: Updated concepts about an old disease. Lancet Neurol 4 :653–661.

  • 3

    Serpa JA, Yancey LS, White AC Jr, 2006. Advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 4 :1051–1061.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Modi M, Mochan A, Modi G, 2004. Management of HIV-associated focal brain lesions in developing countries. QJM 97 :413–421.

  • 5

    Shelburne SA, Montes M, Hamill RJ, 2006. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: more answers, more questions. J Antimicrob Chemother 57 :167–170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Soto Hernandez JL, Ostrosky Zeichner L, Tavera G, Gomez Avina G, 1996. Neurocysticercosis and HIV infection: report of two cases and review. Surg Neurol 45 :57–61.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Thornton CA, Houston S, Latif AS, 1992. Neurocysticercosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. A possible association. Arch Neurol 49 :963–965.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Delobel P, Signate A, El Guedj M, et al., 2004. Unusual form of neurocysticercosis associated with HIV infection. Eur J Neurol 11 :55–58.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Prasad S, MacGregor RR, Tebas P, et al., 2006. Management of potential neurocysticercosis in patients with HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis 42 :e30–e34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    White AC Jr, Dakik H, Diaz P, 1995. Asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a patient with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis. Am J Med 99 :101–102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Moskowitz LB, Hensley GT, Chan JC, et al., 1984. The neuropathology of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Arch Pathol Lab Med 08 :867–872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Mason P, Houston S, Gwanzura L, 1992. Neurocysticercosis: experience with diagnosis by ELISA serology and computerised tomography in Zimbabwe. Cent Afr J Med 38 :149–154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Del Brutto OH, Roos KL, Coffey CS, Garcia HH, 2006. Meta-analysis: Cysticidal drugs for neurocysticercosis: albendazole and praziquantel. Ann Intern Med 145 :43–51.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Robertson J, Meier M, Wall J, et al., 2006. Immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV: validating a case definition and identifying clinical predictors in persons initiating antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 42 :1639–1646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Restrepo BI, Alvarez JI, Castano JA, et al., 2001. Brain granulomas in neurocysticercosis patients are associated with a Th1 and Th2 profile. Infect Immun 69 :4554–4560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    White AC Jr, Robinson P, Kuhn R, 1997. Taenia solium cysticercosis: host-parasite interactions and the immune response. Chem Immunol 66 :209–230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Stringer JL, Marks LM, White AC Jr, Robinson P, 2003. Epileptogenic activity of granulomas associated with murine cysticercosis. Exp Neurol 183 :532–536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Robinson P, White AC, Lewis DE, et al., 2002. Sequential expression of the neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin in granulomas associated with murine cysticercosis. Infect Immun 70 :4534–4538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Shelburne SA, Visnegarwala F, Darcourt J, et al., 2005. Incidence and risk factors for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome during highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 19 :399–406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Lipman M, Breen R, 2006. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV. Curr Opin Infect Dis 19 :20–25.

  • 21

    Sailer M, Soelder B, Allerberger F, et al., 1997. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver in a six-year-old girl with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Pediatr 130 :320–323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Venkataramana A, Pardo CA, McAuthur JC, et al., 2006. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the CNS of HIV-infected patients. Neurology 67 :383–388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Jessurun J, Barron-Rodriguez LP, Fernandez-Tinaco G, Hernandez-Avila M, 1992. The prevalence of invasive amebiasis is not increased in patients with AIDS. AIDS 6 :307–309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Chianura L, Sberna M, Moioli C, et al., 2006. Neurocysticercosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report. J Travel Med 13 :376–380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Neurocysticercosis in the HIV Era: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, and Department of Pathology, Section of Neuropathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas
Restricted access

The prevalence of HIV is increasing in countries where neurocysticercosis is endemic. Co-infection rates are expected to rise; however, no systematic reviews of the subject are available. We performed a literature review of neurocysticercosis (NCC) occurring in HIV-infected patients and described the clinical and immunophenotypic characteristics of a NCC case presenting with probable immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. We identified 27 cases of NCC-HIV co-infection. The most frequent presentation (61%) was with multiple parenchymal lesions. Seven patients (30%) had other concomitant neurologic infections (e.g., tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis). Thirteen patients received cysticidal therapy, and 85% responded to therapy. Only three patients died (12%). Immunohistochemistry of brain tissue in our case revealed abundant CD3+, CD8+, and CD68+ cells. NCC should be included in the differential diagnosis of neurologic infections in HIV patients in endemic populations. Consideration of the patient’s immune status should alert the clinician to potential atypical presentations.

Save