• 1

    Michon P, Cole-Tobian JL, Dabod E, Schoepflin S, Igu J, Susapu M, Tarongka N, Zimmerman PA, Reeder JC, Beeson JG, Schofield L, King CL, Mueller I, 2007. The risk of malarial infections and disease in Papua New Guinean children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 :997–1008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Collins WE, Jeffery GM, 1999. A retrospective examination of sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum in patients previously infected with heterologous species of Plasmodium: effect on development of parasitologic and clinical immunity. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 (1 Suppl):36–43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Korenromp EL, Williams BG, de Vlas SJ, Gouws E, Gilks CF, Ghys PD, Nahlen BL, 2005. Malaria cases and deaths attributable to the HIV-1 epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa: a quantitative assessment at country level. Emerg Infect Dis 11 :1410–1419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Whitworth J, Morgan D, Quigley M, Smith A, Mayanja B, Eotu H, Omoding N, Okongo M, Malamba S, Ojwiya A, 2000. Effect of HIV-1 and increasing immunosuppression on malaria parasitaemia and clinical episodes in adults in rural Uganda: a cohort study. Lancet 356 :1051–1056.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Brooker S, Clements AC, Hotez PJ, Hay SI, Tatem AJ, Bundy DA, Snow RW, 2006. The co-distribution of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm among African schoolchildren. Malar J 5 :99.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Mwangi TW, Bethony JM, Brooker S, 2006. Malaria and helminth interactions in humans: an epidemiological viewpoint. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100 :551–570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Guerra CA, Snow RW, Hay SI, 2006. Mapping the global extent of malaria in 2005. Trends Parasitol 22 :353–358.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

ACQUIRED IMMUNITY IN A HOLOENDEMIC SETTING OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM AND P. VIVAX MALARIA

View More View Less
  • 1 ALERTAsia Foundation, Jakarta, Indonesia; Kenya Medical Research institute–University of Oxford-Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
Restricted access

Most of what we presume to understand of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria comes from studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The virtual absence of P. vivax malaria from most of that region leaves three important questions not addressed: 1) What is naturally acquired immunity to P. vivax malaria; 2) do the mechanisms of natural immunity to P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria differ, and 3) what influence does one species exert on acquisition of immunity to the other? Naturally acquired immunity requires repeated and frequent exposure to infection, and

Most of what we presume to understand of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria comes from studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The virtual absence of P. vivax malaria from most of that region leaves three important questions not addressed: 1) What is naturally acquired immunity to P. vivax malaria; 2) do the mechanisms of natural immunity to P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria differ, and 3) what influence does one species exert on acquisition of immunity to the other? Naturally acquired immunity requires repeated and frequent exposure to infection, and

Save