• 1

    Trouiller P, Olliaro P, Torreele E, Orbinski J, Laing R, Ford N, 2002. Drug development for neglected diseases: a deficient market and a public health policy failure. Lancet 359 :2188–2194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Ashford RW, Desjeux P, de Raadt P, 1992. Estimation of population at risk of infection and number of cases of leishmaniasis. Parasitol Today 8 :104–105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Desjeux P, 2004. Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 27 :305–318.

  • 4

    Chowdhury MA, Rafiqueuddin AK, Hossain A, 1992. Aldehyde test (fomolgel test) in the diagnosis of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). Trop Doct 22 :185–186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Zijlstra EE, Ali MS, el-Hassan AM, el-Toum IA, Satti M, Ghalib HW, Kager PA, 1992. Kala-azar: a comparative study of parasitological methods and the direct agglutination test in diagnosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 :505–507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Kaul P, Malla N, Kaur S, Mahajan RC, Ganguly NK, 2000. Evaluation of a 200-kDa amastigote-specific antigen of L. donovani by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 :173–175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Raj VS, Ghosh A, Dole VS, Madhubala R, Myler PJ, Stuart KD, 1999. Serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis with recombinant ORFF antigen. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :482–487.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Zijlstra EE, Daifalla NS, Kager PA, Khalil EA, Hassan AME, Reed SG, Ghalib HW, 1998. rK39 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Leishmania donovani infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 5 :717–720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Harith AE, Kolk AH, Leeuwenburg J, Muigai R, Kiugu S, Kiugu S, Laarman JJ, 1986. A simple and economical direct agglutination test for serodiagnosis and seroepidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80 :583–587.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Harith AE, Kolk AH, Leeuwenburg J, Muigai R, Huigen E, Jelsma T, Kager PA, 1988. Improvement of a direct agglutination test for field studies of visceral leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol 26 :1321–1325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Burns JM, Shreffler WG, Benson DR, Ghalib HW, Badaro R, Reed SG, 1993. Molecular characterization of a kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania chagasi that detects specific antibody in African American visceral leishmaniasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90 :775–779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Maalej IA, Chenik M, Louzir H, Salah AB, Bahloul C, Amri F, Dellagi K, 2003. Comparative evaluation of ELISAs based on ten recombinant or purified Leishmania antigens for the serodiagnosis of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :312–320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Shamsuzzaman SM, Furuya M, Choudhury AK, Korenaga M, Hashiguchi Y, 2000. Characterisation of Bangladeshi Leishmania isolated from kala-azar patients by isoenzyme electrophoresis. Parasitol Int 49 :139–145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Islam MZ, Itoh M, Shamsuzzaman SM, Mirza R, Matin F, Ahmed I, Choudhury AK, Hossain MA, Qiu XG, Begam N, Furuya M, Leafasia JL, Hashiguchi Y, Kimura E, 2002. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by ELISA using urine samples. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9 :789–794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    World Health Organization, 1984. Leishmaniasis. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 701 :1–140.

  • 16

    Sundar S, Reed S, Singh V, Kumar P, Murray HW, 1998. Rapid accurate field diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet 351 :563–565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Sundar S, Pai K, Sahu M, Kumar V, Marrey HW, 2002. Immunochromatographic strip-test detection of anti-K39 antibody in Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 :19–23.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Bern C, Jha SN, Joshi AB, Thakur GD, Bista MB, 2000. Use of the recombinant K39 dipstick test and the direct agglutination test in a setting endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63 :153–157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Jelineck T, Eichenlaub S, Loscher T, 1999. Sensitivity and specificity of a rapid immunochromatographic test for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Eur J Clin Mirobiol Infect Dis 18 :669–670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Islam MZ, Itoh M, Mirza R, Ahmed I, Ekram AR, Sarder AH, Shamsuzzaman SM, Hashiguchi Y, Kimura E, 2004. Direct agglutination test with urine samples for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70 :78–82.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Delgado O, Feliciangeli MD, Coraspe V, Silva S, Perez A, Arias J, 2001. Value of a dipstick based on recombinant rK39 antigen for differential diagnosis of American visceral leishmaniasis from other sympatric endemic diseases in Venezuela. Parasite 8 :355–357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Zijlstra E, Nur Y, Desjeux P, Khalil E, El-Hassan A, Groen J, 2001. Diagnosing visceral leishmaniasis with the recombinant K39 strip test: experience from the Sudan. Trop Med Int Health 6 :108–113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Carvalho SF, Lemos EM, Corey R, Dietze R, 2003. Performance of recombinant K39 antigen in the diagnosis of Brazilian visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :321–324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Khalil EA, Zijlstra EE, Kager PA, Hassan MA, 2002. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Leishmania donovani infection in two villages in an endemic area in eastern Sudan. Trop Med Int Health 7 :35–44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Singh S, Kumari V, Singh N, 2002. Predicting kala-azar disease manifestations in asymptomatic patients with latent Leishmania donovani infection by detection of antibody against recombinant K39 antigen. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9 :568–572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Jha TK, Sundar S, Thakur CP, Backmann P, Karbwang J, Fischer C, Vos A, Berman J, 1999. Miltefosine, an oral agent, for the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis. N Engl J Med 341 :1795–1800.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Anam K, Afrin F, Banerjee D, Pramanic N, Guha SK, Goswami RP, Saha SK, Ali N, 1999. Differential decline in Leishmania membrane antigen-specific InG (IgG), IgM, IgE and IgG subclass antibodies in Indian kala-azar patients after chemotherapy. Infect Immun 67 :6663–6669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Atta AM, d’Oliveira JR, Correa J, Atta ML, Almeida RP, Carvaho EM, 1998. Anti-leishmanial IgE antibodies: a marker of active disease in visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :426–430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Attar ZJ, Chance ML, el-Safi S, Carney J, Azazy A, El-Hadi M, Dourado C, Hommel M, 2001. Latex agglutination test for the detection of urinary antigens in visceral leishmaniasis. Acta Trop 78 :11–16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Itoh M, Weerasooriya MV, Qui XG, Gunawardena NK, Anantaphruti MT, Tesana S, Rattanaxay P, Fujimaki Y, Kimura E, 2001. Sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in urine samples. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 :362–365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT KINESIN-RELATED PROTEIN OF LEISHMANIA DONOVANI AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE SERODIAGNOSIS OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Parasitology, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; Department of Medicine, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; Encephalitis Surveillance in Bangladesh, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Nankoku, Japan

To detect IgG antibody in the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a recombinant antigen rK39, which is part of a Leishmania chagasi kinesin-related protein, has been used successfully and showed high sensitivity and specificity. We report production of a recombinant protein rKRP42, which is part of an L. donovani kinesin-related protein and a homolog of rK39, and its application in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of VL. When rKRP42 and rK39 were compared, amino acid sequence analysis showed 89.3% identity and 98.7% homology, with rKRP42 having 39 more amino acids than rK39. The ELISA using rKRP42 showed a sensitivity of 94.6% (70 positive samples among 74 from VL patients) and a specificity of 99.3% (148 negative samples among 149 samples from Japanese controls), whereas the sensitivity of the commercial rK39 dipstick test was 93.2% (69 positive samples among 74 from patients with VL). The rKRP42 is a promising new antigen in developing immunodiagnostic methods for VL.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Hidekazu Takagi, Department of Parasitology, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi-ken 480-1195, Japan, Telephone: 81-52-264-4811, Fax: 81-561-63-3645, E-mail: htakagi@aichi-med-u.ac.jp.
Save