• 1

    Meegan JM, 1979. The Rift Valley fever epizootic in Egypt 1977–78. 1. Description of the epizootic and virological studies. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 73 :618–623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Gerrard SR, Nichol ST, 2002. Characterization of the Golgi retention motif of Rift Valley fever virus G(N) glycoprotein. J Virol 76 :12200–12210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Meegan JM, Khalil GM, Hoogstraal H, Adham FK, 1980. Experimental transmission and field isolation studies implicating Culex pipiens as a vector of Rift Valley fever virus in Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29 :1405–1410.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Kramer LD, Ebel GD, 2003. Dynamics of flavivirus infection in mosquitoes. Adv Virus Res 60 :187–232.

  • 5

    Marrama L, Spiegel A, Ndiaye K, Sall AA, Gomes E, Diallo M, Thiongane Y, Mathiot C, Gonzales JP, 2005. Domestic transmission of Rift Valley fever virus in Diawara (Senegal) in 1998. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36 :1487–1495.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Hardy JL, Houk EJ, Kramer LD, Reeves WC, 1983. Intrinsic factors affecting vector competence of mosquitoes for arbovi-ruses. Annu Rev Entomol 28 :229–262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Vazeille-Falcoz M, Mousson L, Rodhain F, Chungue E, Failloux A-B, 1999. Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 :292–299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Turell MJ, 1993. Effect of environmental temperature on the vector competence of Aedes taeniorhynchus for Rift Valley fever and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49 :672–676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Brubaker JF, Turell MJ, 1998. Effect of environmental temperature on the susceptibility of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to Rift valley fever virus. J Med Entomol 35 :918–921.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Georghiou GP, Metcalf RL, Gidden FE, 1966. Carbamate-resistance in mosquitoes. Selection of Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann (=Cx. quinquefasciatus Say) for resistance to Baygon. Bull World Health Organ 35 :691–708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Muller R, Saluzzo JF, Lopez N, Dreier T, Turell M, Smith J, Bouloy M, 1995. Characterization of clone 13, a naturally attenuated avirulent isolate of Rift Valley fever virus, which is altered in the small segment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53 :405–411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Billecocq A, Vialat P, Bouloy M, 1996. Persistent infection of mammalian cells by Rift Valley fever virus. J Gen Virol 77 :3053–3062.

  • 13

    Kuberski TT, Rosen L, 1977. A simple technique for the detection of dengue antigen in mosquitoes by immunofluorescence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26 :533–537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Rutledge LCR, Ward RA, Gould DJ, 1964. Studies on the feeding response of mosquitoes to nutritive solutions in a new membrane feeder. Mosq News 24 :407–419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Raymond M, Rousset F, 1995. Genepop (version 1.2): population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J Hered 86 :248–249.

  • 16

    Turell MJ, 1988. Reduced Rift valley fever virus infection rates in mosquitoes associated with pledget feedings. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39 :597–602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Meyer RP, Hardy JL, Presser SB, 1983. Comparative vector competence of Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus from the Coachella, Imperial, and San Joaquin Valleys of California for St. Louis encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 :305–311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Molina-Cruz A, Gupta L, Richardson J, Bennett K, Black W IV, Barillas-Mury C, 2005. Effect of mosquito midgut trypsin activity on dengue-2 virus infection and dissemination in Aedes aegypti.Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 :631–637.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Turell MJ, Rossi CA, Bailey CL, 1985. Effect of extrinsic incubation temperature on the ability of Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens to transmit Rift Valley fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34 :1211–1218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EFFICIENT ORAL INFECTION OF CULEX PIPIENS QUINQUEFASCIATUS BY RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS USING A COTTON STICK SUPPORT

View More View Less
  • 1 Unité Postulante Génétique Moléculaire des Bunyaviridés, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Transmission experiments are essential to assess vector competence. In an attempt to study Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) transmission in its arthropod vector, disseminated infection rates were measured in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus exposed to Clone 13, an avirulent variant of RVFV. We compared the classic system of glass feeders covered with different membranes (0–1%) with an alternative system in which a cotton stick is used as a support of a blood meal. The latter system showed the highest successful feeding rate (80%). Using this system, we optimized two parameters to obtain the highest numbers of engorged females and thus the highest numbers of females with disseminated infection: 1) use of freshly collected washed erythrocytes and 2) duration of the extrinsic incubation period of at least 14 days after infection.

Save