MALARIA RISK FACTORS IN AMERINDIAN CHILDREN IN FRENCH GUIANA

SARAH HUSTACHE Equipe EA 3593, Laboratoire Hospitalo Universitaire de Parasitologie Mycologie, Université Antilles Guyane, Campus Saint Denis; Department of Health Centers, Cayenne General Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana

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MATHIEU NACHER Equipe EA 3593, Laboratoire Hospitalo Universitaire de Parasitologie Mycologie, Université Antilles Guyane, Campus Saint Denis; Department of Health Centers, Cayenne General Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana

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FÉLIX DJOSSOU Equipe EA 3593, Laboratoire Hospitalo Universitaire de Parasitologie Mycologie, Université Antilles Guyane, Campus Saint Denis; Department of Health Centers, Cayenne General Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana

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BERNARD CARME Equipe EA 3593, Laboratoire Hospitalo Universitaire de Parasitologie Mycologie, Université Antilles Guyane, Campus Saint Denis; Department of Health Centers, Cayenne General Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana

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Malaria is a major public health problem in French Guiana. This study was conducted in children <1–5 years of age in Camopi, an Amerindian village in eastern French Guiana. Medical, environmental, and behavioral predictive factors of malaria were studied using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox modeling. Variables included were clearing vegetation around the home (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.43–0.88 for 50–75% cleared and HR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.31–0.81 for > 75% cleared) relative to homes surrounded by vegetation; distance of a home from a river (HR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37–0.85 for distances between 20 and 40 meters, HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.47–1.09 for distances between 40 and 80 meters, HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.28–0.94 for distances between 80 and 120 meters, and HR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.30–0.86 for distances > 120 meters) relative to distances < 20 meters; the number of occupants in the home (HR = 1.54, 95% CI = 0.98–2.44 for 7 occupants, HR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.29–2.81 for 8–11 occupants, and HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.27–3.23 for > 11 occupants); clothing (HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.46–0.90 for children wearing western-style clothes relative to those wearing the traditional kalimbe), and ethnicity (Wayampi children had a lower hazard of malaria relative to Emerillon children: HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40–0.80). The environment near the home was strongly associated with malaria. This suggests that simple pragmatic protection measures would be useful in Camopi.

Author Notes

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