Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF, Morzunov S, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Feldmann H, Sanchez A, Childs J, Zaki S, Peters CJ, 1993. Genetic identification of a hantavirus associated with an outbreak of acute respiratory illness. Science 262 :914–917.
Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, Rollin PE, Zaki S, Nichol S, Spiropoulou C, Morzunov S, Feldmann H, Sanchez A, Khan AS, Mahy BWJ, Wachsmuth K, Butler JC, 1995. Identification of a new North American hantavirus that causes acute pulmonary insufficiency. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 :117–123.
Duchin JS, Koster FT, Peters CJ, Simpson GL, Tempest B, Zaki SR, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Nichol S, Umland ET, Moolenaar RL, Reef SE, Nolte KB, Gallaher MM, Butler JC, Breiman RF, for the Hantavirus Study Group, 1994. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: A clinical description of 17 patients with a newly recognized disease. N Engl J Med 330 :949–955.
Peters CJ, Mills JN, Spiropoulou CF, Zaki SR, Rollin PE, 2006. Hantavirus infection. In: Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, eds. Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, and Practice. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 762–780.
Carroll DS, Mills JN, Montgomery JM, Bausch DG, Blair JP, Burans JP, Felices V, Gianella A, Iihoshi N, Nichol ST, Olson JG, Rogers DS, Salazar M, Ksiazek TG, 2005. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in central Bolivia: Relationships between reservoir hosts, habitats, and viral genotypes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 :42–46.
Marshall E, 1993. Hantavirus outbreak yields to PCR. Science 262 :832, 834–836.
Peters CJ, 1998. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas. In: Scheld WM, Craig WA, Hughes JM, eds. Emerging Infections 2. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 17–63.
Schmaljohn CS, Hjelle B, 1997. Hantaviruses: A global disease problem. Emerg Infect Dis 3 :95–104.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Case Information: Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Case Count and Descriptive Statistics. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hanta/hps/noframes/caseinfo.htm. Accessed February 27, 2006.
Handley CO Jr, 1999. Deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. In: Wilson DE, Ruff S, eds. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 575–577.
Morzunov SP, Rowe JE, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, St Jeor SC, Nichol ST, 1998. Genetic analysis of the diversity and origin of hantaviruses in Peromyscus leucopus mice in North America. J Virol 72 :57–64.
Zeitz PS, Graber JM, Voorhees RA, Kioski C, Shands LA, Ksiazek TG, 1997. Assessment of occupational risk for hantavirus infection in Arizona and New Mexico. J Occup Environ Med 39 :463–467.
Song JW, Baek LJ, Nagle JW, Schlitter D, Yanagihara R, 1996. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of hantaviral sequences amplified from archival tissues of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae) captured in the eastern United States. Arch Virol 141 :959–967.
Swofford DL, 2001. PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). Version 4. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Rhodes LV 3rd, Huang C, Sanchez AJ, Nichol ST, Zaki SR, Ksiazek TG, Humphreys JG, Freeman JJ, Knecht KR, 2000. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome associated with Monongahela virus, Pennsylvania. Emerg Infect Dis 6 :616–621.
Childs JE, Ksiazek TG, Spiropoulou CF, Krebs JW, Morzunov S, Maupin GO, Gage KL, Rollin PE, Sarisky J, Enscore RE, Frey JK, Peters CJ, Nichol ST, 1994. Serologic and genetic identification of Peromyscus maniculatus as the primary rodent reservoir for a new hantavirus in the southwestern United States. J Infect Dis 169 :1271–1280.
Johnson AM, Bowen MD, Ksiazek TG, Williams RJ, Bryan RT, Mills JN, Peters CJ, Nichol ST, 1997. Laguna Negra virus associated with HPS in western Paraguay and Bolivia. Virology 238 :115–127.
Hjelle B, Torrez-Martinez N, Koster FT, 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-related virus from Bolivia. Lancet 347 :57.
Padula PJ, Edelstein A, Miguel SD, Lopez NM, Rossi CM, Rabinovich RD, 1998. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak in Argentina: Molecular evidence for person-to-person transmission of Andes virus. Virology 241 :323–330.
Dragoo JW, Lackey JA, Moore KE, Lessa EP, Cook JA, Yates TL, 2006. Phylogeography of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) provides a predictive framework for research on hantaviruses. J Gen Virol 87 :1997–2003.
Young JC, Hansen GR, Graves TK, Deasy MP, Humphreys JG, Fritz CL, Gorham KL, Khan AS, Ksiazek TG, Metzger KB, Peters CJ, 2000. The incubation period of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 :714–717.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome–United States: Updated recommendations for risk reduction. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 51 :1–12.
Vitek CR, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, Breiman RF, 1996. Evidence against infection with hantaviruses among forest and park workers in the southwestern United States. Clin Infect Dis 23 :283–285.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004. Two cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome—Randolph County, West Virginia, July 2004. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53 :1086–1089.
Mills JN, Yates TL, Childs JE, Parmenter RR, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Peters CJ, 1995. Guidelines for working with rodents potentially infected with hantavirus. J Mamm 76 :716–722.
Mills JN, Childs JE, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, Velleca WM, 1995. Methods for Trapping and Sampling Small Mammals for Virologic Testing. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||504||219||3|
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by an infection with viruses of the genus Hantavirus in the western hemisphere. Rodent hosts of hantaviruses are present throughout the United States. In July 2004, two HPS case-patients were identified in Randolph County, WV: a wildlife science graduate student working locally and a Randolph County resident. We interviewed family members and colleagues, reviewed medical records, and conducted environmental studies at likely exposure sites. Small mammals were trapped, and blood, urine, and tissue samples were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for laboratory analyses. These analyses confirmed that both patients were infected with Monongahela virus, a Sin Nombre hantavirus variant hosted by the Cloudland deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae. Other than one retrospectively diagnosed case in 1981, these are the first HPS cases reported in West Virginia. These cases emphasize the need to educate the public throughout the United States regarding risks and prevention measures for hantavirus infection.