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DROUGHT-ASSOCIATED CHIKUNGUNYA EMERGENCE ALONG COASTAL EAST AFRICA

JEAN-PAUL CHRETIENDepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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ASSAF ANYAMBADepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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SHERYL A. BEDNODepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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ROBERT F. BREIMANDepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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ROSEMARY SANGDepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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KIBET SERGONDepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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ANN M. POWERSDepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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CLAYTON O. ONYANGODepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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JENNIFER SMALLDepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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COMPTON J. TUCKERDepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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KENNETH J. LINTHICUMDepartment of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System (DoD-GEIS), Silver Spring, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado; USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida

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Epidemics of chikungunya fever, an Aedes spp.-borne viral disease, affected hundreds of thousands of people in western Indian Ocean islands and India during 2005–2006. The initial outbreaks occurred in coastal Kenya (Lamu, then Mombasa) in 2004. We investigated eco-climatic conditions associated with chikungunya fever emergence along coastal Kenya using epidemiologic investigations and satellite data. Unusually dry, warm conditions preceded the outbreaks, including the driest since 1998 for some of the coastal regions. Infrequent replenishment of domestic water stores and elevated temperatures may have facilitated Chikungunya virus transmission. These results suggest that drought-affected populations may be at heightened risk for chikungunya fever, and underscore the need for safe water storage during drought relief operations.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Jean-Paul Chretien, Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System, Division of Preventive Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910-7500, E-mail: Jean-Paul.Chretien@na.amedd.army.mil.
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