• 1

    Gyapong JO, Kumaraswami V, Biswas G, Ottesen EA, 2005. Treatment strategies underpinning the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Expert Opin Pharmacother 6 :179–200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Horton J, Witt C, Ottesen EA, Lazdins JK, Addiss DG, Awadzi K, Beach MJ, Belizario VY, Dunyo SK, Espinel M, Gyapong JO, Hossain M, Ismail MM, Jayakody RL, Lammie PJ, Makunde W, Richard-Lenoble D, Selve B, Shenoy RK, Simonsen PE, Wamae CN, Weerasooriya MV, 2000. An analysis of the safety of the single dose, two drug regimens used in programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Parasitology 121 ( Suppl ):S147–S160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Ottesen EA, Duke BO, Karam M, Behbehani K, 1997. Strategies and tools for the control/elimination of lymphatic filariasis. Bull World Health Organ 75 :491–503.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Ottesen EA, Ismail MM, Horton J, 1999. The role of albendazole in programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Parasitol Today 15 :382–386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Ramzy RM, El Setouhy M, Helmy H, Ahmed ES, Abd Elaziz KM, Farid HA, Shannon WD, Weil GJ, 2006. Effect of yearly mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on bancroftian filariasis in Egypt: a comprehensive assessment. Lancet 367 :992–999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    WHO, 2006. Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: Progress report on mass drug administrations in 2005. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 81 :221–232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Horton J, 2002. Albendazole: a broad spectrum anthelminthic for treatment of individuals and populations. Curr Opin Infect Dis 15 :599–608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Addiss D, Critchley J, Ejere H, Garner P, Gelband H, Gamble C, 2004. Albendazole for lymphatic filariasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD003753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Ismail MM, Jayakody RL, Weil GJ, Fernando D, de Silva MA, de Silva GA, Balasooriya WK, 2001. Long-term efficacy of single-dose combinations of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 :332–335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Ismail MM, Jayakody RL, Weil GJ, Nirmalan N, Jayasinghe KS, Abeyewickrema W, Rezvi Sheriff MH, Rajaratnam HN, Amarasekera N, de Silva DC, Michalski ML, Dissanaike AS, 1998. Efficacy of single dose combinations of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 :94–97.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Hussein O, Setouhy ME, Ahmed ES, Kandil AM, Ramzy RM, Helmy H, Weil GJ, 2004. Duplex Doppler sonographic assessment of the effects of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole therapy on adult filarial worms and adjacent host tissues in Bancroftian filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 :471–477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Kshirsagar NA, Gogtay NJ, Garg BS, Deshmukh PR, Rajgor DD, Kadam VS, Kirodian BG, Ingole NS, Mehendale AM, Fleckenstein L, Karbwang J, Lazdins-Helds JK, 2004. Safety, tolerability, efficacy and plasma concentrations of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole co-administration in a field study in an area endemic for lymphatic filariasis in India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98 :205–217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Rajendran R, Sunish IP, Mani TR, Munirathinam A, Abdullah SM, Arunachalam N, Satyanarayana K, 2004. Impact of two annual single-dose mass drug administrations with diethylcarbamazine alone or in combination with albendazole on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia and antigenaemia in south India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98 :174–181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Rajendran R, Sunish IP, Mani TR, Munirathinam A, Abdullah SM, Augustin DJ, Satyanarayana K, 2002. The influence of the mass administration of diethylcarbamazine, alone or with albendazole, on the prevalence of filarial antigenaemia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 :595–602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Rajendran R, Sunish IP, Mani TR, Munirathinam A, Arunachalam N, Satyanarayana K, Dash AP, 2006. Community-based study to assess the efficacy of DEC plus ALB against DEC alone on bancroftian filarial infection in endemic areas in Tamil Nadu, south India. Trop Med Int Health 11 :851–861.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Ramaiah KD, Vanamail P, Pani SP, Yuvaraj J, Das PK, 2002. The effect of six rounds of single dose mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin on Wuchereria bancrofti infection and its implications for lymphatic filariasis elimination. Trop Med Int Health 7 :767–774.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Sunish IP, Rajendran R, Mani TR, Munirathinam A, Reuben R, Dash AP, 2006. Impact of single dose of diethylcarbamazine and other antifilarial drug combinations on bancroftian filarial infection variables: assessment after 2 years. Parasitol Int 55 :233–236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Bockarie MJ, Kazura JW, 2003. Lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: prospects for elimination. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 192 :9–14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Bockarie M, Kazura J, Alexander N, Dagoro H, Bockarie F, Perry R, Alpers M, 1996. Transmission dynamics of Wuchereria bancrofti in East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54 :577–581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Desowitz RS, Hitchcock JC, 1974. Hyperendemic bancroftian filariasis in the Kingdom of Tonga: the application of the membrane filter concentration technique to an age-stratified blood survey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 23 :877–879.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    More SJ, Copeman DB, 1990. A highly specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen in bancroftian filariasis. Trop Med Parasitol 41 :403–406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Turner P, Copeman B, Gerisi D, Speare R, 1993. A comparison of the Og4C3 antigen capture ELISA, the Knott test, an IgG4 assay and clinical signs, in the diagnosis of Bancroftian filariasis. Trop Med Parasitol 44 :45–48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Bockarie MJ, Tisch DJ, Kastens W, Alexander ND, Dimber Z, Bockarie F, Ibam E, Alpers MP, Kazura JW, 2002. Mass treatment to eliminate filariasis in Papua New Guinea. N Engl J Med 347 :1841–1848.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Tisch DJ, Michael E, Kazura JW, 2005. Mass chemotherapy options to control lymphatic filariasis: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 5 :514–523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Critchley J, Addiss D, Ejere H, Gamble C, Garner P, Gelband H, 2005. Albendazole for the control and elimination of lymphatic filariasis: systematic review. Trop Med Int Health 10 :818–825.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Fox LM, Furness BW, Haser JK, Desire D, Brissau JM, Milord MD, Lafontant J, Lammie PJ, Beach MJ, 2005. Tolerance and efficacy of combined diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti and intestinal helminth infections in Haitian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 :115–121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Pani S, Subramanyam Reddy G, Das L, Vanamail P, Hoti S, Ramesh J, Das P, 2002. Tolerability and efficacy of single dose albendazole, diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) or co-administration of albendazole with DEC in the clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti in asymptomatic microfilaraemic volunteers in Pondicherry, South India: a hospital-based study. Filaria J 1 :1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

 

 

 

EFFICACY OF SINGLE-DOSE DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE COMPARED WITH DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE COMBINED WITH ALBENDAZOLE AGAINST WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI INFECTION IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA

View More View Less
  • 1 Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Madang, Papua New Guinea; Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio

The efficacy of diethylcarbamazine alone was compared with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole in residents of an island in Papua New Guinea endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti. There was no statistically significant difference between the two drug regimens in decreasing the microfilaria positive rate at 12 and 24 months after a single-dose treatment with either regimen, e.g., 50.0% clearance of microfilaria at 24 months for diethylcarbamazine alone versus 65.7% clearance of microfilaria for diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole (P > 0.05). In contrast, diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole resulted in a significant decrease in Og4C3 antigen prevalence (17%; P = 0.003) at 24 months whereas diethylcarbamazine did not (10%; P = 0.564). These data showed no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of the two drug regimens in lowering the microfilaria reservoir, but they support the use of diethylcarbamazine combined with albendazole in mass treatment programs on the basis of greater activity against adult worms.

Save