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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN AN AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION IN CENTRAL INDIA

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  • 1 National Institute of Malaria Research, Field Station, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India; Division of Reproductive Health and Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India; National Institute of Malaria Research, Delhi, India
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A longitudinal study on malaria was carried out from 2003 to 2005 in an area of unstable malaria in the Panna district in central India. Both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum were prevalent; however, the risk of P. falciparum malaria was 31.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 29.6–33.6%), which is four times higher compared with that of P. vivax malaria (7.8%, 95% CI = 6.7–9%). An increasing trend was recorded in malaria prevalence from 30.2% in 2003 to 46.6% in 2004 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6–2.5) that increased to 58.6% in 2005 (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2–2.1). This increase was statistically significant (χ2 = 120.5, degrees of freedom = 2, P < 0.0001). Anopheles culicifacies was the dominant vector of malaria and showed partial (< 50%) resistance to DDT, which indicated that DDT can still be used. Improved access to treatment facilities, combination therapy, and vector control appears to be the most promising method for controlling malaria in this region.

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