• 1

    Harrison BA, 1980. The Myzomyia series of Anopheles (Cellia) in Thailand, with emphasis on intra-specific variations (Diptera: Culicidae). Contr Am Entomol Inst (Ann Arbor) 17 :1–195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Van Bortel W, Sochanta T, Harbach RE, Socheat D, Roelants P, Backeljau T, Coosemans M, 2002. Presence of Anopheles culicifacies B in Cambodia established by the PCR-RFLP assay developed for the identification of Anopheles minimus species A and C and four related species. Med Vet Entomol 16 :329–334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Rao TR, 1984. The Anophelines of India. Delhi, India: Malaria Research Centre.

  • 4

    Green CA, Miles SJ, 1980. Chromosomal evidence for sibling species of the malaria vector Anopheles (Cellia) culicifacies Giles. J Trop Med Hyg 83 :75–78.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Subbarao SK, Vasantha K, Adak T, Sharma VP, 1983. Anopheles culicifacies complex: evidence for a new sibling species, species C. Ann Entomol Soc Am 76 :985–986.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Suguna SG, Tewari SC, Mani TR, Hiryan J, Reuben R, 1989. A cytogenetic description of a new species of the Anopheles cu-licifacies species complex. Genetica 78 :225–230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Vasantha K, Subbarao SK, Sharma VP, 1991. Anopheles culicifacies complex: Population cytogenetic evidence for species D (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 84 :531–536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Kar I, Subbarao SK, Eapen A, Ravindran J, Satyanarayana TS, Raghavendra K, Nanda N, Sharma VP, 1999. Evidence for a new malaria vector species, species E, within the Anopheles culicifacies complex (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 36 :595–600.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Subbarao SK, 1998. Anopheline Species Complexes in South-East Asia. New Delhi, India: World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia.

  • 10

    Subbarao SK, Adak T, Sharma VP, 1980. Anopheles culicifacies: sibling species distribution and vector incrimination studies. J Commun Dis 12 :102–104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Subbarao SK, Adak T, Vasantha K, Joshi H, Raghavendra K, Cochrane AH, Nussenzweig RS, Sharma VP, 1988. Suceptibility of Anopheles culicifacies species A and B to Plasmodium vivax and P falciparum as determined by immunoradiometric assay. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 82 :394–397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Subbarao SK, Vasantha K, Joshi H, Raghavendra K, Usha Devi C, Satyanarayana TS, Cochrane AH, Nussenzweig RS, Sharma VP, 1992. Role of Anophelese culicifacies sibling species in malaria transmission in Madhya Pradesh, India. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 :613–614.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Subbarao SK, Vasantha K, Raghavendra K, Sharma VP, Sharma GK, 1988. Anopheles culicifacies: sibling species composition and its relationship to malaria incidence. J Am Mosq Contr Assoc 4 :29–33.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Joshi H, Vasantha K, Subbarao SK, Sharma VP, 1988. Host feeding patterns of Anophelese culicifacies species A and B. J Am Mosq Contr Assoc 4 :248–251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Subbarao SK, Vasantha K, Sharma VP, 1988a. Response of Anopheles culicifacies species A and B to DDT and HCH in India: implications in malaria control. Med Vet Entomol 2 :219–223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Raghavendra K, Vasantha K, Subbarao SK, Pillai MKK, Sharma VP, 1991. Resistance in Anopheles culicifacies sibling species B and C to malathion in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat states in India. J Am Mosq Contr Assoc 7 :255–259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Subbarao SK, Sharma VP, 1997. Anopheline species complexes and malaria control. Indian J Med Res 106 :164–173.

  • 18

    Subbarao SK, Nanda N, Raghavendra K, 1999. Malariogenic stratification of India using Anopheles culicifacies sibling species prevalence. ICMR Bull 29 :75–80.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Milligan PJM, Phillips A, Molyneux DH, Subbarao SK, White GB, 1986. Differentiation of Anopheles culicifacies Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) sibling species by analysis of cuticular components. Bull Entomol Res 76 :529–537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Adak T, Subbarao SK, Sharma VP, Rao SRV, 1994. Lactate dehydrogenase allozyme differentiation of species in the Anopheles culicifacies complex. Med Vet Entomol 8 :137–140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Gunasekera MB, de Silva BGDNK, Abeyewickreme W, Subbarao SK, Nandadasa HG, Karunayayake EH, 1995. Development of DNA probes for the identification of sibling species A of the Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) complex. Bull Entomol Res 85 :345–353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Krzywinski J, Besansky NJ, 2003. Molecular systematics of Anopheles: from subgenera to subpopulations. Annu Rev Entomol 48 :111–139.

  • 23

    Curtis CF, Townson H, 1998. Existing methods of vector control and molecular entomology. British Med Bull 54 :311–325.

  • 24

    Singh OP, Goswami G, Nanda N, Raghavendra K, Chandra D, Subbarao SK, 2004. An allele specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the identification of members of Anopheles culicifacies complex. J Biosciences 29 :275–278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Goswami G, Nanda N, Raghavendra K, Gakhar SK, Subbarao SK, 2005. PCR-RFLP of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II and ITS2 of ribosomal DNA: markers for the identification of members of Anopheles culicifacies complex (Diptera: Culicidae). Acta Trop 95 :92–99.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Salazar M, Theoduloz C, Vega A, Poblete F, Gonzalez E, Badilla R, Meraa-Basso L, 2002. PCR-RFLP identification of endemic Chilean species of Rhagoletis (Diptera:Tephritidae) attacking solanaceae. Bull Entomol Res 92 :337–341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Hazel CL, Garcia-Maruniak A, Maruniak JE, 2002. Strain identification of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) Insects and cell line: PCR-RFLP of cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. Fla Entomol 85 :186–190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Carew ME, Pettigrove V, Hoffmann AA, 2003. Identifying chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) for biological monitoring with PCR-RFLP. Bull Entomol Res 93 :483–490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Mitchell SE, Narang SK, Cockburn AK, Seawright JA, Godenthal M, 1992. Mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA variation among members of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) species complex. Genome 35 :939–950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Narang SK, Seawright JA, Mitchell SE, Kaiser PE, Calrson DA, 1993. Multiple-technique identification of sibling species of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex. J Am Mosq Cont Assoc 9 :463–464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Green CA, Hunt RH, 1980. Interpretation of variation in ovarian polytenene chromosomes of Anopheles funestus Giles, A Parensis gillies and A Aruni? Genetica 51 :187–195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Subbarao SK, Vasantha K, Sharma VP, 1988. Cytotaxonomy of certain malaria vectors of India. Service MW, ed. Biosystematics of hematophagous insects. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 25–37.

  • 33

    Subbarao SK, Nanda N, Chandrahas RK, Sharma VP, 1993. Anopheles culicifacies complex: Cytogenetic characterization of Rameshwaram island populations. J Am Mosq Contr Assoc 9 :27–31.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Coen ES, Thoday JM, Dover G, 1982. Rate of turnover of structural variants in the rDNA gene family of Drosophila melanogaster.Nature 295 :564–568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Simon C, Frati F, Beckenbach A, Crespi B, Liu H, Flook P, 1994. Evolution, weighting and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a complilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Ann Entomol Soc Am 87 :651–701.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plenwniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG, 1997. The Clustal X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acid Res 24 :4876–4882.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Ugozzoli L, Wallace RB, 1991. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Methods: A comparison to Methods in Enzymology 2 :42–48.

  • 38

    Huang MM, Arnheim N, Goodman MF, 1992. Extension of base mispairs by Taq DNA polymerase: implication for single nucleotide discrimination in PCR. Nucl Acids Res 20 :4567–4573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Paskewitz SM, Collins FH, 1990. Use of polymerase chain reaction to identify mosquito species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Med Vet Entomol 4 :367–373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Nanda N, Yadav RS, Subbarao SK, Joshi H, Sharma VP, 2000. studies in Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles culicifacies in relation with malaria in forest and deforested reverine ecosystems in northern Orissa, India. J Am Mosq Contr Assoc 16 :199–205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

IDENTIFICATION OF ALL MEMBERS OF THE ANOPHELES CULICIFACIES COMPLEX USING ALLELE-SPECIFIC POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAYS

View More View Less
  • 1 Malaria Research Centre, Delhi, India; Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India; Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India
Restricted access

Anopheles culicifacies, a complex of five isomorphic sibling species, is a major vector of malaria in India and neighboring countries. The five species are provisionally designated as species A, B, C, D, and E. Polytene chromosome examination has been the only method available that differentiates four members of this complex in areas where species E is not prevalent. However, this technique requires the mosquitoes to be in the half-gravid stage and thus limits its application to only about one fourth to one third of the total adult collection and excludes immature stages completely. For species E, both polytene chromosome examination and mitotic chromosome examination of F1 males are required. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on the D3 domain (D3-PCR) of 28S rDNA and a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay involving ITS2 of rDNA are available for the discrimination of the members of the An. culicifacies complex. However, both these can only differentiate species A and D from species B, C, and E. We report here two allele-specific PCR assays (AD-PCR and BCE-PCR) using sequence differences in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (CO II) subunit. The AD-PCR assay distinguishes species A and D, whereas the BCE-PCR assay distinguishes species B, C, and E. Thus, with a combination of two PCR assays, namely the D3-PCR/ITS2-RsaI assay, followed by either the AD-PCR or the BCE-PCR assay, it is possible to identify individual specimens of any of the species of this complex. This assay system is the first, and the best available at present to distinguish all sibling species and especially to discriminate non-vector, species B from all the vector species, A, C, D, and E, of the An. culicifacies complex. Until another DNA-based method involving fewer steps is developed, this assay system can be used in all malaria epidemiologic studies where An. culicifacies is prevalent.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: K. Raghavendra, Malaria Research Centre, 22 Sham Nath Marg, Delhi 110054, India, E-mail: kamarajur2000@yahoo.com.
Save