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MALARIA VECTOR PRODUCTIVITY IN RELATION TO THE HIGHLAND ENVIRONMENT IN KENYA

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  • 1 Center for Tropical Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; Climate and Human Health Research Unit, Center for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York

The reasons for the resurgence of malaria in the African highlands have been subject of debate. Because vector abundance is important for malaria transmission, gaining a better understanding of vector biology is a key to understanding the mechanisms of highland malaria. We studied vector productivity in relation to the highland environment and compared productivity between lowland and highland sites. We found lower vector productivity in the highland and in wetlands where the temperature was lower. Immature stage development time was significantly longer in the highland site. Development time was significantly shorter in aquatic habitats in cultivated areas than in wetlands, and survival rate was significantly higher in cultivated areas. Fecundity was significantly lower in the highland site. These findings suggest that changes in local temperature and land use contribute to an increase of malaria vectors in the highland.

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