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One hundred thirty-eight adult patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized to receive either β-arteether or α/β-arteether. The drugs were administered in the dose of 150 mg once a day intramuscularly for three consecutive days in hospitalized patients. After one week of hospitalization, patients were followed-up for three weeks after release from the hospital. There was no statistically significant difference between cure rates, mean fever clearance time (FCT), mean parasite clearance time (PCT), and occurrence of side effects in either group. The cure rate was 97.14% for β-arteether and 97.01 for α/β-arteether (P = 0.9660). The mean PCT was 38.49 hours for β-arteether and 36.90 hours for α/β-arteether (P = 0.6054), and the mean FCT was 37.27 hours for β-arteether and 37.9 hours for α/β-arteether (P = 0.8718). Both arteether formulations were safe and efficacious in reducing the clinical symptoms of acute falciparum malaria. There was also rapid clearance of parasitemia with both formulations. Thus, either β-arteether or α/β-arteether can be used in the treatment of acute falciparum malaria.