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STABILITY OF INTERFERON-γ AND INTERLEUKIN-10 RESPONSES TO PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM LIVER STAGE ANTIGEN-1 AND THROMBOSPONDIN-RELATED ADHESIVE PROTEIN IN RESIDENTS OF A MALARIA HOLOENDEMIC AREA

ANN M. MOORMANNCenter for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Vector Control and Biology Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio

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CHANDY C. JOHNCenter for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Vector Control and Biology Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio

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PETER ODADA SUMBACenter for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Vector Control and Biology Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio

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DANIEL TISCHCenter for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Vector Control and Biology Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio

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PAULA EMBURYCenter for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Vector Control and Biology Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio

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JAMES W. KAZURACenter for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Vector Control and Biology Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio

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The stability of anti-malarial immunity will influence the interpretation of immunologic endpoints during malaria vaccine trials conducted in endemic areas. Therefore, we evaluated cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum liver stage antigen-1 (LSA-1) and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) by Kenyans from a holoendemic area at a 9-month interval. The proportion of adults with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) responses to 9-mer LSA-1 peptides was similar at both time-points, whereas responses from children decreased (P < 0.05). Response to the longer, 23-mer LSA-1 peptide was variable, decreasing in adults and children over time (P < 0.02 and P < 0.001, respectively). The proportion of children with IFN-γ responses to either antigen at the second time-point was significantly lower than that of adults, yet more adults responded to 9-mer TRAP peptides (P < 0.02). In contrast, the proportion of interleukin-10 responses to LSA-1 and TRAP was similar at both time-points for both age groups. Most noteworthy was that even when the repeat cross-sectional frequency of cytokine responses was the same, these responses were not generated by the same individuals. This suggests that cytokine responses to LSA-1 and TRAP are transient under natural exposure conditions.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Ann M. Moormann, Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, 2103 Cornell Road, 4-130 Wolstein Research Building, Cleveland, OH 44106-7286.
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