• 1

    Aramburu Guarda J, Ramal Asayag C, Witzig R, 1999. Malaria reemergence in the Peruvian Amazon region. Emerg Infect Dis 5 :209–215.

  • 2

    Brown AE, Kain KC, Pipithkul J, Webster HK, 1992. Demonstration by the polymerase chain reaction of mixed Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections undetected by conventional microscopy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 :609–612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Milne LM, Kyi MS, Chiodini PL, Warhurst DC, 1994. Accuracy of routine laboratory diagnosis of malaria in the United Kingdom. J Clin Pathol 47 :740–742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Oliveira DA, Shi YP, Oloo AJ, Boriga DA, Nahlen BL, Hawley WA, Holloway BP, Lal AA, 1996. Field evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction-based nonisotopic liquid hybridization assay for malaria diagnosis. J Infect Dis 173 :1284–1287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Makler MT, Ries JM, Williams JA, Bancroft JE, Piper RC, Gibbins BL, Hinrichs DJ, 1993. Parasite lactate dehydrogenase as an essay for Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitivity. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48 :739–741.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Beadle C, Long GW, Weiss WR, McElroy PD, Maret SM, Oloo AJ, Hoffman SL, 1994. Diagnosis of malaria by detection of Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 antigen with a rapid dipstick antigen-capture assay. Lancet 343 :564–568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Ciceron L, Jaureguiberry G, Gay F, Danis M, 1999. Development of a Plasmodium PCR for monitoring efficacy of antimalarial treatment. J Clin Microbiol 37 :35–38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Kain KC, Brown AE, Lanar DE, Ballou WR, Webster HK, 1993. Response of Plasmodium vivax variants to chloroquine as determined by microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49 :478–484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Cattamanchi A, Kyabayinze D, Hubbard A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, 2003. Distinguishing recrudescence from reinfection in a longitudinal antimalarial drug efficacy study: comparison of results based on genotyping of msp-1, msp-2, and glurp. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :133–139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Craig AA, Kain KC, 1996. Molecular analysis of strains of Plasmodium vivax from paired primary and relapse infections. J Infect Dis 174 :373–379.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Singh B, Cox-Singh J, Miller AO, Abdullah MS, Snounou G, Rahman HA, 1996. Detection of malaria in Malaysia by nested polymerase chain reaction amplification of dried blood spots on filter papers. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 :519–521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Watt G, Loesuttiviboon L, Long GW, 1995. Prospective comparison of methods for the early prediction of treatment failure in patients with falciparum malaria. Clin Infect Dis 21 :1026–1028.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Warrell D, Molyneux M, Beales P, 1990. Severe and complicated malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84 :1–65.

  • 14

    World Health Organization, 1973. Advances in malaria chemotherapy. WHO Tech Rep Ser 529 :30.

  • 15

    Plowe CV, Djimde A, Bouare M, Doumbo O, Wellems TE, 1995. Pyrimethamine and proguanil resistance-conferring mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase: polymerase chain reaction methods for surveillance in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 :565–568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Snounou G, Viriyakosol S, Zhu XP, Jarra W, Pinheiro L, do Rosario VE, Thaithong S, Brown KN, 1993. High sensitivity of detection of human malaria parasites by the use of nested polymerase chain reaction. Mol Biochem Parasitol 61 :315–320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Snounou G, Viriyakosol S, Jarra W, Thaithong S, Brown KN, 1993. Identification of the four human malaria parasite species in field samples by the polymerase chain reaction and detection of a high prevalence of mixed infections. Mol Biochem Parasitol 58 :283–292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Snounou G, Zhu X, Siripoon N, Jarra W, Thaithong S, Brown KN, Viriyakosol S, 1999. Biased distribution of msp1 and msp2 allelic variants in Plasmodium falciparum populations in Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93 :369–374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Felger I, Irion A, Steiger S, Beck HP, 1999. Genotypes of merozoite surface protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93 (suppl 1):3–9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Borre MB, Dziegiel M, Hogh B, Petersen E, Rieneck K, Riley E, Meis JF, Aikawa M, Nakamura K, Harada M, Wind A, Jakobsen PH, Cowland J, Jepsen S, Axelsen NH, Vuust J, 1991. Primary structure and localization of a conserved immunogenic Plasmodium falciparum glutamate rich protein (GLURP) expressed in both the preerythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the vertebrate life cycle. Mol Biochem Parasitol 49 :119–131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    World Health Organization, 1996. Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy of Antimalaria Drugs for Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Areas with Intense Transmission. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

  • 22

    Mantel N, 1963. Chi-squared tests with one degree of freedom: extensions of the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. J Am Stat Assoc 58 :690–700.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Klein J, 1997. Survival Analysis: Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

  • 24

    Tami A, Grundmann H, Sutherland C, McBride JS, Cavanagh DR, Campos E, Snounou G, Barnabe C, Tibayrenc M, Warhurst DC, 2002. Restricted genetic and antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum under mesoendemic transmission in the Venezuelan Amazon. Parasitology 124 :569–581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Montoya L, Maestre A, Carmona J, Lopes D, Do Rosario V, Blair S, 2003. Plasmodium falciparum: diversity studies of isolates from two Colombian regions with different endemicity. Exp Parasitol 104 :14–19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Ariey F, Chalvet W, Hommel D, Peneau C, Hulin A, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Duchemin JB, Sarthou JL, Reynes JM, Fandeur T, 1999. Plasmodium falciparum parasites in French Guiana: limited genetic diversity and high selfing rate. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :978–985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Baird JK, Hoffman SL, 2004. Primaquine therapy for malaria. Clin Infect Dis 39 :1336–1345.

  • 28

    Kain KC, Brown AE, Mirabelli L, Webster HK, 1993. Detection of Plasmodium vivax by polymerase chain reaction in a field study. J Infect Dis 168 :1323–1326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Maitland K, Williams TN, Bennett S, Newbold CI, Peto TE, Viji J, Timothy R, Clegg JB, Weatherall DJ, Bowden DK, 1996. The interaction between Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in children on Espiritu Santo island, Vanuatu. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 :614–620.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Toma H, Kobayashi J, Vannachone B, Arakawa T, Sato Y, Nambanya S, Manivong K, Inthakone S, 2001. A field study on malaria prevalence in southeastern Laos by polymerase chain reaction assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 :257–261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Bruce-Chwatt L, 1985. Diagnostic methods in malaria. Essential Malariology. London: William Heinemann Medical Books, 115–118.

  • 32

    Aubouy A, Bakary M, Keundjian A, Mbomat B, Makita JR, Migot-Nabias F, Cot M, Le Bras J, Deloron P, 2003. Combination of drug level measurement and parasite genotyping data for improved assessment of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine efficacies in treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gabonese children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47 :231–237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Branch OH, Takala S, Kariuki S, Nahlen BL, Kolczak M, Hawley W, Lal AA, 2001. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes, low complexity of infection, and resistance to subsequent malaria in participants in the Asembo Bay Cohort Project. Infect Immun 69 :7783–7792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Babiker H, Abdel-Wahab A, Ahmed S, Suleiman S, Ranford-Cartwright L, Carter R, Walliker D, 1999. Detection of low level Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Mol Biochem Parsitol 99 :143–148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Hoffman EH, Ribolla PE, Ferreira MU, 2003. Genetic relatedness of Plasmodium falciparum isolates and the origin of allelic diversity at the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) locus in Brazil and Vietnam. Malar J 2 :24.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Anderson TJ, Haubold B, Williams JT, Estrada-Franco JG, Richardson L, Mollinedo R, Bockarie M, Mokili J, Mharakurwa S, French N, Whitworth J, Velez ID, Brockman AH, Nosten F, Ferreira MU, Day KP, 2000. Microsatellite markers reveal a spectrum of population structures in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biol Evol 17 :1467–1482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Feng X, Carlton JM, Joy DA, Mu J, Furuya T, Suh BB, Wang Y, Barnwell JW, Su XZ, 2003. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and genome diversity in Plasmodium vivax. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100 :8502–8507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Zou L, Miles AP, Wang J, Stowers AW, 2003. Expression of malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen Pfs25 in Pichia pastoris for use in human clinical trials. Vaccine 21 :1650–1657.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Anthony TG, Conway DJ, Cox-Singh J, Matusop A, Ratnam S, Shamsul S, Singh B, 2005. Fragmented population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in a region of declining endemicity. J Infect Dis 191 :1558–1564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Machado RL, Povoa MM, Calvosa VS, Ferreira MU, Rossit AR, dos Santos EJ, Conway DJ, 2004. Genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum populations in the Brazilian Amazon region. J Infect Dis 190 :1547–1555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Kublin JG, Witzig RS, Shankar AH, Zurita JQ, Gilman RH, Guarda JA, Cortese JF, Plowe CV, 1998. Molecular assays for surveillance of antifolate-resistant malaria. Lancet 351 :1629–1630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Wooden J, Gould EE, Paull AT, Sibley CH, 1992. Plasmodium falciparum: a simple polymerase chain reaction method for differentiating strains. Exp Parasitol 75 :207–212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 79 76 9
PDF Downloads 25 19 2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND MOLECULAR GENOTYPING TO MONITOR PARASITOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO ANTI-MALARIAL CHEMOTHERAPY IN THE PERUVIAN AMAZON

EVERICK AYALAAsociación Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Direccion de Salud, Ministry of Health, Loreto Department, Iquitos, Peru; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California

Search for other papers by EVERICK AYALA in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
ANDRÉS G. LESCANOAsociación Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Direccion de Salud, Ministry of Health, Loreto Department, Iquitos, Peru; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California

Search for other papers by ANDRÉS G. LESCANO in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
ROBERT H. GILMANAsociación Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Direccion de Salud, Ministry of Health, Loreto Department, Iquitos, Peru; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California

Search for other papers by ROBERT H. GILMAN in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
MARITZA CALDERÓNAsociación Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Direccion de Salud, Ministry of Health, Loreto Department, Iquitos, Peru; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California

Search for other papers by MARITZA CALDERÓN in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
VIVIANA V. PINEDOAsociación Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Direccion de Salud, Ministry of Health, Loreto Department, Iquitos, Peru; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California

Search for other papers by VIVIANA V. PINEDO in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
HILJA TERRYAsociación Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Direccion de Salud, Ministry of Health, Loreto Department, Iquitos, Peru; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California

Search for other papers by HILJA TERRY in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
LILIA CABRERAAsociación Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Direccion de Salud, Ministry of Health, Loreto Department, Iquitos, Peru; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California

Search for other papers by LILIA CABRERA in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
JOSEPH M. VINETZAsociación Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Direccion de Salud, Ministry of Health, Loreto Department, Iquitos, Peru; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California

Search for other papers by JOSEPH M. VINETZ in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Over the past decade, anti-malarial drug resistance has rapidly become a major public health problem in the Peruvian Amazon. This study compared polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to light microscopy for diagnosing and monitoring the parasitological response of malaria patients to anti-malarial chemotherapy in the Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos. Typing of P. falciparum using MSP1, MSP2, and glutamine-rich protein distinguished among infecting parasites. Most (73%) P. falciparum patients were parasitologically resistant to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (RI = 10, RII = 1). Sensitivity of microscopy was lower than PCR (69% for P. vivax and 78% for P. falciparum), but parasite clearance times were comparable between microscopy and PCR. PCR sensitively and specifically detected mixed infections and low-level parasitemia indicative of drug resistance, making this approach of practical use for the control of malaria at the public health level. Genotyping malaria parasites will be useful to distinguish drug failure from new infections in clinical trials of anti-malarial drugs in the Peruvian Amazon region.

Save