White NJ, 1996. The treatment of malaria. N Eng J Med 335 :800–806.
Breman JG, Egan A, Keusch GT, 2001. The intolerable burden of malaria: a new look at the numbers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 :iv–vii.
WHO, 2000. WHO Expert Committee on Malaria. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 892 :1–74.
Bloland PB, Ruebush TK, McCormick JB, Ayisi J, Boriga DA, Oloo AJ, Beach R, Hawley W, Lal A, Nahlen B, Udhayakumar V, Campbell CC, 1999. Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense malaria transmission I. Description of study site, general methodology, and study population. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 :635–640.
McElroy PD, ter Kuile FO, Lal AA, Bloland PB, Hawley WA, Oloo AJ, Monto AS, Meshnick SR, Nahlen BL, 2000. Effect of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia density on hemoglobin concentrations among full-term, normal birth weight children in western Kenya, IV. The Asembo Bay Cohort Project. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 :504–512.
Hillman RS, Finch CA, 1996. Red Cell Manual. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
Achidi EA, Perlmann H, Salimonu LS, Perlmann P, Walker O, Asuzu MC, 1995. A longitudinal study of seroreactivities to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in Nigerian infants during their first year of life. Acta Trop 59 :173–183.
Akanmori BD, Afari EA, Sakatoku H, Nkrumah FK, 1995. A longitudinal study of malaria infection, morbidity and antibody titres in infants of a rural community in Ghana. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 :560–561.
Trape JF, Rogier C, Konate L, Diagne N, Bouganali H, Canque B, Legros F, Badji A, Ndiaye G, Brakimi K, Faye O, Druilhe P, Dasilva LP, 1994. The Dielmo project: a longitudinal study of natural malaria infection and the mechanisms of protective immunity in a community living in a holoendemic area of Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 :123–137.
Menendez C, Fleming AF, Alonso PL, 2000. Malaria-related anaemia. Parasitol Today 16 :469–476.
Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Montresor A, Albonico M, Savioli L, Tielsch JM, 2000. Malaria, hookworms and recent fever are related to anemia and iron status indicators in 0- to 5-y old Zanzibari children and these relationships change with age. J Nutr 130 :1724–1733.
Nussenblatt V, Semba RD, 2002. Micronutrient malnutrition and the pathogenesis of malarial anemia. Acta Trop 82 :321–337.
Luckner D, Lell B, Greve B, Lehman LG, Schmidt-Ott RJ, Matousek P, Herbich K, Schmid D, Mba R, Kremsner PG, 1998. No influence of socioeconomic factors on severe malarial anaemia, hyperparasitaemia or reinfection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 :478–481.
Schellenberg D, Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Font F, Galindo C, Acosta C, Schellenberg JA, Aponte JJ, Kimario J, Urassa H, Mshinda H, Tanner M, Alonso P, 1999. African children with malaria in an area of intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission: features on admission to the hospital and risk factors for death. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :431–438.
Villamor E, Fawzi WW, 2000. Vitamin A supplementation: implications for morbidity and mortality in children. J Infect Dis 182 (Suppl 1):S122–S133.
Kahigwa E, Schellenberg D, Sanz S, Aponte JJ, Wigayi J, Mshinda H, Alonso P, Menendez C, 2002. Risk factors for presentation to hospital with severe anaemia in Tanzanian children: a case-control study. Trop Med Int Health 7 :823–830.
Republic of Kenya, 2001. Siaya District Development Plan 2002–2008. Effective management for sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction. Ministry of Finance and Planning. Nairobi: Government Press.
Siaya District Health System Annual Bulletin, 2003. Effective use of information communication technology for health promotion. Isaac Onyango Oguma: Health Information System, Siaya, Kenya.
McElroy PD, ter Kuile FO, Hightower AW, Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, Oloo AJ, Lal AA, Nahlen BL, 2001. All-cause mortality among young children in western Kenya. VI: the Asembo Bay Cohort Project. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 :18–27.
Beach RF, Ruebush TK 2nd, Sexton JD, Bright PL, Hightower AW, Breman JG, Mount DL, Oloo AJ, 1993. Effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated bed nets and curtains for malaria control in a holoendemic area of western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49 :290–300.
Beier JC, Oster CN, Onyango FK, Bales JD, Sherwood JA, Perkins PV, Chumo DK, Koech DV, Whitmire RE, Roberts CR, Diggs CL, Hoffman SL, 1994. Plasmodium falciparum incidence relative to entomologic inoculation rates at a site proposed for testing malaria vaccines in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 :529–536.
Lackritz EM, Campbell CC, Ruebush TK 2nd, Hightower AW, Wakube W, Steketee RW, Were JB, 1992. Effect of blood transfusion on survival among children in a Kenyan hospital. Lancet 340 :524–528.
Zucker JR, Lackritz EM, Ruebush TK 2nd, Hightower AW, Adungosi JE, Were JB, Metchock B, Patrick E, Campbell CC, 1996. Childhood mortality during and after hospitalization in western Kenya: effect of malaria treatment regimens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 :655–660.
Murray CJL, Lopez AD, World Health Organization., World Bank, 1996. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Cambridge, MA: Harvard School of Public Health.
Abdalla S, 1990. Hematopoiesis in human malaria. Blood cells 16 :401–416.
Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Hirt R, Vounatsou P, Aponte JJ, Font F, Acosta CJ, Schellenberg DM, Galindo CM, Kimario J, Urassa H, Brabin B, Smith TA, Kitua AY, Tanner M, Alonso PL, 1997. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants. Lancet 350 :844–850.
Snow RW, Omumbo JA, Lowe B, Molyneux CS, Obiero JO, Palmer A, Weber MW, Pinder M, Nahlen B, Obonyo C, New-bold C, Gupta S, Marsh K, 1997. Relation between severe malaria morbidity in children and level of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Africa. Lancet 349 :1650–1654.
Koram KA, Owusu-Agyei S, Utz G, Binka FN, Baird JK, Hoffman SL, Nkrumah FK, 2000. Severe anemia in young children after high and low malaria transmission seasons in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 :670–674.
Slutsker L, Chitsulo L, Macheso A, Steketee RW, 1994. Treatment of malaria fever episodes among children in Malawi: results of a KAP survey. Trop Med Parasitol 45 :61–64.
Owusu-Agyei S, Fryauff DJ, Chandramohan D, Koram KA, Binka FN, Nkrumah FK, Utz GC, Hoffman SL, 2002. Characteristics of severe anemia and its association with malaria in young children of the Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 :371–377.
Smith T, Hurt N, Teuscher T, Tanner M, 1995. Is fever a good sign for clinical malaria in surveys of endemic communities? Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 :306–310.
National Council for Population and Development, 1998. Kenya demographic and health survey 1998. Calverton, MD: Central Bureau of Statistics, Office of the Vice President and Ministry of Planning and National Development, Kenya and Macro International, Inc.
Verhoef H, West CE, Veenemans J, Beguin Y, Kok FJ, 2002. Stunting may determine the severity of malaria-associated anemia in African children. Pediatrics 110 :e48.
Kwena AM, Terlouw DJ, de Vlas SJ, Phillips-Howard PA, Hawley WA, Friedman JF, Vulule JM, Nahlen BL, Sauerwein RW, ter Kuile FO, 2003. Prevalence and severity of malnutrition in pre-school children in a rural area of western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :94–99.
Deen JL, Walraven GE, von Seidlein L, 2002. Increased risk for malaria in chronically malnourished children under 5 years of age in rural Gambia. J Trop Pediatr 48 :78–83.
Caulfield LE, Richard SA, Black RE, 2004. Undernutrition as an underlying cause of malaria morbidity and mortality in children less than five years old. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 :55–63.
Meltzer MI, Terlouw DJ, Kolczak MS, Odhacha A, ter Kuile FO, Vulule JM, Alaii JA, Nahlen BL, Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, 2003. The household-level economics of using permethrin-treated bed nets to prevent malaria in children less than five years of age. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :149–160.
Koram KA, Bennett S, Adiamah JH, Greenwood BM, 1995. Socio-economic determinants are not major risk factors for severe malaria in Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 :151–154.
D’Alessandro U, Olaleye BO, McGuire W, Thomson MC, Langerock P, Bennett S, Greenwood BM, 1995. A comparison of the efficacy of insecticide-treated and untreated bed nets in preventing malaria in Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 :596–598.
Abdulla S, Schellenberg JA, Nathan R, Mukasa O, Marchant T, Smith T, Tanner M, Lengeler C, 2001. Impact on malaria morbidity of a programme supplying insecticide treated nets in children aged under 2 years in Tanzania: community cross sectional study. Bmj 322 :270–273.
ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Phillips-Howard PA, Hawley WA, Friedman JF, Kolczak MS, Kariuki SK, Shi YP, Kwena AM, Vulule JM, Nahlen BL, 2003. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria and all-cause morbidity in young children in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya: cross-sectional survey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :100–107.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||365||181||4|
Malarial anemia (MA) is a multifactorial disease for which the complex etiological basis is only partially defined. The association of clinical, nutritional, demographic, and socioeconomic factors with parasitemia, anemia, and MA was determined for children presenting at a hospital in a holoendemic area of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in western Kenya. Parasitemia was not associated with malaria disease severity. In univariate logistic regression, fever was significantly associated with parasitemia, and wasting was associated with increased presentation of MA. Caretaker’s level of education and occupation were significantly correlated with parasitemia, anemia, and MA. Housing structure was also significantly associated with parasitemia and anemia. Bed net use was protective against parasitemia but not anemia or MA. Multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that fever, mother’s occupation, and bed net use were associated with parasitemia. In the current study, none of the factors were associated with anemia or MA in the multivariate models.