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A DRUG-BASED INTERVENTION STUDY ON THE IMPORTANCE OF BUFFALOES FOR HUMAN SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM INFECTION AROUND POYANG LAKE, PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

JIAGANG GUOInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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YUESHENG LIInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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DARREN GRAYInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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AN NINGInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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GUANGHAN HUInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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HONGGEN CHENInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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GEORGE M. DAVISInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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ADRIAN C. SLEIGHInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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ZHENG FENGInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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DONALD P. McMANUSInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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GAIL M. WILLIAMSInstitute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonosis of major public health importance in southern China. We undertook a drug intervention to test the hypothesis that buffalo are major reservoirs for human infection in the marshlands/lake areas, where one million people are infected. We compared human and buffalo infection rates and intensity in an intervention village (Jishan), where humans and buffalo were treated with praziquantel, and a control village (Hexi), where only humans were treated, in the Poyang Lake region. Over the four-year study, human incidence in Jishan decreased but increased in Hexi. Adjustment of incidence by age, sex, water exposure, year, and village further confirmed the decreased human infection in Jishan. Chemotherapy for buffaloes resulted in a decrease in buffalo infection rates in Jishan, which coincided with the reduction in human infection rates there in the last two years of the study. Mathematical modeling predicted that buffalo are responsible for 75% of human transmission in Jishan.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Donald P. McManus, Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, 300 Herston Road, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia, Telephone: 61-7-3362-0401, Fax: 61-7-3362-0104, E-mail: donM@qimr.edu.au.
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