• 1

    Magill AJ, 1995. Epidemiology of the leishmaniases. Dermatol Clin 13 :505–523.

  • 2

    Berman JD, 1997. Human leishmaniasis: clinical, diagnostic, and chemotherapeutic developments in the last 10 years. Clin Infect Dis 24 :684–703.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Badaro R, Reed SG, Carvalho EM, 1983. Immunofluorescent antibody test in American visceral leishmaniasis: sensitivity and specificity of different morphological forms of two Leish-mania species. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 :480–484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Hommel M, Peters W, Ranque J, Quilici M, Lanotte G, 1978. The micro-ELISA technique in the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 72 :213–218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    el Safi SH, Evans DA, 1989. A comparison of the direct agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the sero-diagnosis of leishmaniasis in the Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83 :334–337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Piarroux R, Gambarelli F, Dumon H, Fontes M, Dunan S, Mary C, Toga B, Quilici M, 1994. Comparison of PCR with direct examination of bone marrow aspiration, myeloculture, and serology for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in immunocom-promised patients. J Clin Microbiol 32 :746–749.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    el Harith A, Kolk AH, Leeuwenburg J, Muigai R, Huigen E, Jelsma T, Kager PA, 1988. Improvement of a direct agglutination test for field studies of visceral leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol 26 :1321–1325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Sundar S, Reed SG, Singh VP, Kumar PC, Murray HW, 1998. Rapid accurate field diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet 21 :563–565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Zjilstra EE, Daifalla NS, Kager PA, Khalil EAG, El-Hassan AM, Reed SG, Ghalib HW, 1998. rK39 enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay for diagnosis of Leishmania donovani infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 5 :717–720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Martin SK, Thuita-Harun L, Adoyo-Adoyo M, Wasunna KM, 1998. A diagnostic ELISA for visceral leishmaniasis, based on antigen from media conditioned by Leishmania donovani pro-mastigotes. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 :571–577.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Rajasekariah GH, Ryan JR, Hillier SR, Yi LP, Stiteler JM, Cui L, Smithyman AM, Martin SK, 2001. Optimization of an ELISA for the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis using in vitro derived promastigotes antigens. J Immunological Methods 252 :105–119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Ryan JR, Smithyman AM, Rajasekariah GH, Hochberg L, Stiteler JM, Martin SK, 2002. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on soluble promastigote antigen detects IgM and IgG antibodies in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol 40 :1037–1043.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    McKinnon JA, Fendall NR, 1956. Kala azar in the Baringo District of Kenya. Progress Report. J Trop Med Hyg 59 :208–212.

  • 14

    Wijers DJ, Kiilu G, 1984. Studies on the vector of kala azar in Kenya, VIII. The outbreak in Machakos District; epidemio-logical features and a possible way of control. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 78 :597–604.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Werneck GL, Costa CH, Walker AM, David JR, Wand M, Macguire JH, 2002. The urban spread of visceral leishmaniasis: Clues from spatial analysis. Epidem 13 :364–367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Boelaert M, Criel B, Leeuwenburg J, Van Damme W, Le Ray D, Van der Stuyft P, 2000. Visceral leishmaniasis control: a public health perspective. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 :465–471.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Khalil EA, Zijlstra EE, Kager PA, El Hassan AM, 2002. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Leishmania donovani infection in two villages in an endemic area in eastern Sudan. Trop Med Internat Hlth 7 :35–44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Schaefer KU, Kurtzhals JA, Sherwood JA, Githure JI, Kager PA, Muller AS, 1994. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Baringo District, Rift Valley, Kenya. A literature review. Trop Geogr Med 46 :129–133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Manson-Bahr PE, Bell DR, 1988. Manson’s Tropical Diseases. 19th edition. London: WB Saunders Company.

  • 20

    Peterson GL, 1983. Determination of total protein. Methods Enzymol 91 :95–119.

  • 21

    Kurstak E, 1985. Progress in enzyme immunoassays: production of reagents, experimental design and interpretation. Bull Wld Hlth Org 63 :793–811.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Isaaks EH, Srivastava RM, 1989. An Introduction to Applied Geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 249–277.

  • 23

    Bartholomew D, 1959. A test of homogeneity for ordered alternatives. Biometrika 41 :36–48.

  • 24

    Conway MR, 1990. A random effects model for binary data. Biometrics 46 :317–328.

  • 25

    Kulldorff M, Nagarwalla N, 1995. Spatial disease clusters: detection and inference. Stat Med 14 :799–810.

  • 26

    Kulldorff M, Rand K, Gherman G, Williams G, DeFrancesco D, 1998. SaTScan v2.1: Software for the spatial and space-time scan statistics. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute.

  • 27

    Jahn A, Diesfeld HJ, 1983. Evaluation of a visually read ELISA for serodiagnosis and sero-epidemiological studies of kala-azar in the Baringo District, Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77 :451–454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Jahn A, Lelmett JM, Diesfeld HJ, 1986. Seroepidemiological study on kala-azar in Baringo District, Kenya. J Trop Med Hyg 89 :91–104.

  • 29

    Schaefer KU, Khan B, Gachihi GS, Kager PA, Muller AS, Ver-have JP, McNeill KM, 1995. Splenomegaly in Baringo District, Kenya, an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis and malaria. Trop Geogr Med 47 :111–114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Schaefer KU, Kurtzhals JA, Kager PA, Gachihi GS, Gramiccia M, Kagai JM, Sherwood JA, Muller AS, 1994. Studies on the prevalence of Leishmania skin test positivity in the Baringo District, Rift Valley, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 :78–84.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Schaefer KU, Kurtzhals JA, Gachihi GS, Muller AS, Kager PA, 1995. A prospective sero-epidemiological study of visceral leishmaniasis in Baringo District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 :471–475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Schaefer KU, Schoone GJ, Gachihi GS, Muller AS, Kager PA, Meredith SE, 1995. Visceral leishmaniasis: use of the polymer-ase chain reaction in an epidemiological study in Baringo District, Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 :492–495.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Basimike M, Mutinga MJ, Kumar R, 1991. Distribution of sand-flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in three vegetation habits in the Marigat area, Baringo District, Kenya. J Med Entomol 28 :330–333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Basimike M, Mutinga MJ, 1997. Studies on the vectors of leishmaniasis in Kenya: Phlebotomine sand flies of Sandai location, Baringo district. East Afr Med J 74 :582–585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Ngumbi PM, Lawyer PG, Johnson RN, Kilu G, Asiago C, 1992. Identification of phlebotomine sandfly bloodmeals from Baringo District, Kenya, by direct enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay (ELISA). Med Vet Entomol 6 :385–388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Mutinga MJ, Basimike M, Kamau CC, Mutero CM, 1990. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Kenya. Natural host preference of wild caught phlebotomine sand flies in Baringo District, Kenya. East Afr Med J 67 :319–327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Southgate BA, Oriedo BV, 1962. Studies in the epidemiology of East African leishmaniasis. 1. The circumstantial epidemiology of kala-azar in the Kitui District of Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 56 :30–47.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Wijers DJB, Mwangi S, 1966. Studies on the vector of kala-azar in Kenya VI. Environmental epidemiology in Meru District. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 60 :373–391.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Bern C, Joshi AB, Jha SN, Das ML, Hightower A, Thakur GD, Bista MB, 2000. Factors associated with visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal: bed-net use is strongly protective. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63 :184–188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Alexander B, de Carvalho RL, McCallum H, Pereira MH, 2002. Role of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) in the epidemiology of urban visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 8 :1480–1485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Saul A, 2003. Zooprophylaxis or zoopotentiation: the outcome of introducing animals on vector transmission is highly dependent on the mosquito mortality while searching. Malar J 2 :32.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Lehane MJ, 1991. Biology of Blood-Sucking Insects. First edition. London: HarperCollins Academic.

  • 43

    WHO, 1990. Control of Leishmaniasis. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Geneva; World Health Organization. (WHO/ LEISH/98.9).

  • 44

    Robert LL, Schaefer KU, Johnson RN, 1994. Phlebotomine sand flies associated with households of human visceral leishmaniasis cases in Baringo District, Kenya. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 88 :649–657.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Ngumbi PM, Irungu LW, Robert LL, Gordon DM, Githure JI, 1998. Abundances and nocturnal activities of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in termite hills and animal burrows in Baringo District, Kenya. Afr J Health Sci 5 :28–34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    Robert LL, Perich MJ, 1995. Phelotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psy-chodidae) control using a residual pyrethroid insecticide. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11 :195–199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    Perich MJ, Hoch AL, Rizzo N, Rowton ED, 1995. Insecticide barrier spray for the control of sand fly vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 :485–488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    Rowland M, Durrani N, Kenward M, Mohammed N, Urahman H, Hewitt S, 2001. Control of malaria in Pakistan by applying deltamethrin insecticide to cattle: a community randomized trial. Lancet 357 :1837–1841.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49

    Nasci RS, McLaughlin RE, Focks D, Billodeaux JS, 1990. Effect of topically treating cattle with permethrin on blood feeding of Psorophora columbiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in a southwestern Louisiana rice-pasture ecosystem. J Med Entomol 27 :1031–1034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 328 81 18
PDF Downloads 50 24 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

SPATIAL CLUSTERING AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN TWO ENDEMIC VILLAGES, BARINGO DISTRICT, KENYA

JEFFREY R. RYANDepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by JEFFREY R. RYAN in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
JANE MBUIDepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by JANE MBUI in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
JUMA R. RASHIDDepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by JUMA R. RASHID in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
MONIQUE K. WASUNNADepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by MONIQUE K. WASUNNA in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
GEORGE KIRIGIDepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by GEORGE KIRIGI in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
CHARLES MAGIRIDepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by CHARLES MAGIRI in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
DEDAN KINOTIDepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by DEDAN KINOTI in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
PHILLIP M. NGUMBIDepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by PHILLIP M. NGUMBI in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
SAMUEL K. MARTINDepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by SAMUEL K. MARTIN in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
SHADRAK O. ODERADepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by SHADRAK O. ODERA in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
LISA P. HOCHBERGDepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by LISA P. HOCHBERG in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
CHRISTIAN T. BAUTISTADepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by CHRISTIAN T. BAUTISTA in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
ADELINE S. T. CHANDepartment of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland; Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Army Medical Research Unit 64109, Nairobi, Kenya; U.S. Military HIV Research Program and Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Search for other papers by ADELINE S. T. CHAN in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) seroprevalence in Kenya is unknown because of the lack of a practical and accurate diagnostic test or surveillance system. A novel serological assay was used to estimate the seroprevalence of Leishmania-specific antibodies, and Global Information System and spatial clustering techniques were applied to study the presence of spatial clusters in Parkarin and Loboi villages in Baringo District in 2001. VL seroprevalences were 52.5% in Parkarin and 16.9% in Loboi. Significant associations among seropositivity and house construction, age, and proximity to domestic animal enclosures were found. A significant spatial cluster of VL was found in Loboi. The spatial distribution of cases in the two villages was different with respect to risk factors, such as presence of domestic animals. This study suggests that disease control efforts could be focused on elimination of sand fly habitat, placement of domestic animal enclosures, and targeted use of insecticides.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Adeline S. T. Chan, M.P.H., Ph.D., Department of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910-7500, Telephone: (301) 319-9784; Fax: (301) 319-9290, E-mail: adeline.chan@na.amedd.army.mil.
Save