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PUPAL HABITAT PRODUCTIVITY OF ANOPHELES GAMBIAE COMPLEX MOSQUITOES IN A RURAL VILLAGE IN WESTERN KENYA

FRANCIS M. MUTUKUDepartment of Zoology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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M. NABIE BAYOHDepartment of Zoology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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JOHN E. GIMNIGDepartment of Zoology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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JOHN M. VULULEDepartment of Zoology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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LUNA KAMAUDepartment of Zoology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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EDWARD D. WALKERDepartment of Zoology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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EPHANTUS KABIRUDepartment of Zoology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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WILLIAM A. HAWLEYDepartment of Zoology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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The productivity of larval habitats of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae for pupae (the stage preceding adult metamorphosis) is poorly known, yet adult emergence from habitats is the primary determinant of vector density. To assess it, we used absolute sampling methods in four studies involving daily sampling for 25 days in 6 habitat types in a village in western Kenya. Anopheles gambiae s.s. comprised 82.5% of emergent adults and Anopheles arabiensis the remainder. Pupal production occurred from a subset of habitats, primarily soil burrow pits, and was discontinuous in time, even when larvae occupied all habitats continuously. Habitat stability was positively associated with pupal productivity. In a dry season, pupal productivity was distributed between burrow pits and pools in streambeds. Overall, these data support the notion that source reduction measures against recognizably productive habitats would be a useful component of an integrated management program for An. gambiae in villages.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Edward D. Walker, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. E-mail: walker@msu.edu.
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