Gillies MT, deMeillon B, 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region). Johannesburg: The South African Institute for Medical Research.
Gillies MT, Coetzee M, 1987. A Supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Afrotropical Region). Johannesburg: The South African Institute for Medical Research.
Minakawa N, Mutero CM, Githure JI, Beier JC, Yan G, 1999. Spatial distribution and habitat characterization of anopheline mosquito larvae in Western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :1010–1016.
Gimnig JE, Ombok M, Kamau L, Hawley WA, 2001. Characteristics of larval anopheline (Diptera:Culicide) habitats in Western Kenya. J Med Entomol 38 :282–288.
Depinay J-MO, Mbogo CMN, Killeen GF, Knols BGJ, Beier JC, Carlson J, Dushoff J, Billingsely P, Mwambi H, Githure JI, Toure AM, McKenzie FE, 2004. A simulation model of African Anopheles ecology and population dynamics for the analysis of malaria transmission. Malar J 3 :29–50.
Killeen GF, Seyoum A, Knols BGJ, 2004. Rationalizing historical successes of malaria control in Africa in terms of mosquito resource availability management. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 :87–93.
Getis A, Morrison AC, Gray K, Scott TW, 2003. Characteristics of the spatial pattern of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, in Iquitos, Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69 :494–505.
Mutuku FM, Alaii JA, Bayoh MN, Gimnig JE, Vulule JM, Walker ED, Kabiru E, Hawley WA, 2006. Distribution, description, and local knowledge of larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in a village in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 :44–53.
Government of Kenya, 2000. 1999 Population and Housing Census. Kenya: Centre Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance and Housing.
Beier JC, Perkins PV, Onyango FK, Gargan TP, Oster CN, Whitmire I, Koech DK, Roberts CR, 1990. Characterization of malaria transmission by Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya in preparation for malaria vaccine trials. J Med Entomol 27 :570–577.
Scott JA, Brogdon WG, Collins FH, 1993. Identification of single specimens of the Anopheles gambiae complex by polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49 :520–529.
SAS Institute, 2001. SAS Version 8.1. North Carolina: Cary.
Edillo FE, Touré YT, Lanzaro GC, Dolo G, Taylor CE, 2004. Survivorship and distribution of immature Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani Village, Mali. J Med Entomol 41 :333–339.
Service MW, 1971. Studies on sampling larval populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Bull World Health Organ 45 :169–180.
Service MW, 1973. Mortalities of the larvae of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex and detection of predators by the precipitin test. Bull Entomol Res 62 :359–369.
Service MW, 1977. Mortalities of the immature stages of species B of the Anopheles gambiae complex in Kenya: comparison between rice fields and temporary pools, identification of predators, and effects of insecticide spraying. J Med Entomol 13 :535–545.
Gimnig JE, Ombok M, Otieno S, Kaufman M, Vulule JM, Walker ED, 2002. Density-dependent development of Anopheles gambiae larvae in artificial habitats. J Med Entomol 39 :162–172.
Kaufman MG, Wanja S, Maknojia S, Bayoh MN, Vulule JM, Walker ED, The importance of algal biomass to the growth and development of Anopheles gambiae larvae. J Med Entomol (in press).
Holstein MH, 1954. Biology of Anopheles gambiae. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Southwood TRE, Henderson P, 2000. Ecological Methods. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Service MW, 1993. Mosquito Ecology - Field Sampling Methods. London: Chapman & Hall.
Awono-Ambene HP, Robert V, 1999. Survival and emergence of immature Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in market-gardener wells in Dakar, Senegal. Parasite 6 :179–184.
Staedke SG, Nottingham EW, Cox J, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, 2003. Short report: proximity to mosquito breeding sites as a risk factor for clinical malaria episodes in an urban cohort of Ugandan children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69 :244–246.
Afrane YA, Klinkenberg E, Drechsel P, Owusu-Daaku K, Garms R, Kruppa T, 2004. Does irrigated urban agriculture influence the transmission of malaria in the city of Kumasi, Ghana? Acta Trop 89 :125–127.
Robert V, Awono-Ambene HP, Thioulouse J, 1998. Ecology of larval mosquitoes, with special reference to Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in market-garden wells in urban Dakar, Senegal. J Med Entomol 35 :948–955.
Utzinger J, Tozan Y, Singer BH, 2001. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control. Trop Med Inter Health 6 :677–687.
Shousha AT, 1948. The eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Upper Egypt 1942–1945. Bull World Health Organ 1 :309–352.
Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna LC, Knols BG, 2002. Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: Lessons for malaria control in Africa? Lancet 2 :618–627.
Fillinger U, Gonye G, Killeen GF, Knols BGJ, Becker N, 2004. The practical importance of permanent and semipermanent habitats for controlling aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes: operational observations from a rural town in western Kenya. Trop Med Inter Health 9 :1274–1289.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||328||116||3|
The productivity of larval habitats of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae for pupae (the stage preceding adult metamorphosis) is poorly known, yet adult emergence from habitats is the primary determinant of vector density. To assess it, we used absolute sampling methods in four studies involving daily sampling for 25 days in 6 habitat types in a village in western Kenya. Anopheles gambiae s.s. comprised 82.5% of emergent adults and Anopheles arabiensis the remainder. Pupal production occurred from a subset of habitats, primarily soil burrow pits, and was discontinuous in time, even when larvae occupied all habitats continuously. Habitat stability was positively associated with pupal productivity. In a dry season, pupal productivity was distributed between burrow pits and pools in streambeds. Overall, these data support the notion that source reduction measures against recognizably productive habitats would be a useful component of an integrated management program for An. gambiae in villages.