LAWRENCE M. BARAT Global Health, Population, and Nutrition Group Academy for Educational Development, Washington, District of Columbia

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While many countries struggle to control malaria, four countries, Brazil, Eritrea, India, and Vietnam, have successfully reduced malaria burden. To determine what led these countries to achieve impact, published and unpublished reports were reviewed and selected program and partner staff were interviewed to identify common factors that contributed to these successes. Common success factors included conducive country conditions, a targeted technical approach using a package of effective tools, data-driven decision-making, active leadership at all levels of government, involvement of communities, decentralized implementation and control of finances, skilled technical and managerial capacity at national and sub-national levels, hands-on technical and programmatic support from partner agencies, and sufficient and flexible financing. All these factors were essential in achieving success. If the goals of Roll Back Malaria are to be achieved, governments and their partners must take the lessons learned from these program successes and apply them in other affected countries.

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    Lengeler C, 2004. Insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2 :CD000363.

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    van Eijk AM, Ayisi JG, ter Kuile FO, Slutsker L, Otieno JA, Misore AO, Odondi JO, Rosen DH, Kager PA, Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, 2004. Implementation of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for control of malaria in pregnancy in Kisumu, western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 9 :630–637.

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  • 3

    Mutabingwa TK, Anthony D, Heller A, Hallet R, Ahmed J, Drakeley C, Greenwood BM, Whitty CJM, 2005. Amodiaquine alone, amodiaquine+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine+artesunate, artemether-lumafantrine for outpatient treatment of malaria in Tanzanian children: a four-arm randomized effectiveness trial. Lancet 9469 :1474–1480.

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  • 4

    Akhavan D, Musgrove P, Abrantes A, Gusmaõ R, 1999. Cost-effective malaria control in Brazil: Cost-effectiveness of malaria control program in the Amazon Basin of Brazil, 1988–1996. Soc Sci Med 49 :1385–1399.

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  • 5

    Ettling M, 2002. The Control of Malaria in Viet Nam from 1980 to 2000: What Went Right? Manila: The Philippines: WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific.

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