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MALE SEX PHEROMONES AND THE PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE OF THE LUTZOMYIA LONGIPALPIS SPECIES COMPLEX (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM BRAZIL AND VENEZUELA

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  • 1 School of Biological Sciences, Liverpool University, Liverpool, United Kingdom; School of Life Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire, United Kingdom; Departamento de Entomologia, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Centro Nacional de Referencia de Flebotomos, BIOMED, Universidad de Carabobo, Maracay, Venezuela; Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratorio de Bioquimica e Fisiologia de Insetos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Lutzomyia longipalpis, a sibling complex, is the main vector of Leishmania chagasi/infantum. Discriminating between siblings is important as they may differ in vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis populations display distinct male sex pheromone chemotypes. We investigated the phylogeographic pattern of variation at microsatellite loci from 11 populations from Brazil and Venezuela related to their male pheromone. Temporal genetic differentiation was mostly not significant at the same site. Spatial genetic differentiation was, however, strong, although there was only a weak relationship between genetic differentiation and the geographic distance separating the samples (r2 < 0.10); geographic separation explained a much greater (54–97%) percentage of the genetic differences among populations when samples with the same pheromone type were analyzed separately. A cluster analysis showed five groups: Lu. cruzi (Brazil) and Lu. pseudolongipalpis (Venezuela) as separate species, two (mostly 9-methyl-germacrene-B) Venezuelan and Brazilian groups, and a very distinct cluster of Brazilian cembrene populations.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Rhayza D. C. Maingon, School of Life Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, United Kingdom.
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