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Despite different recommendations from WHO and national authorities, artesunate monotherapy is increasingly used for treating African children with malaria. A 5-day course of oral artesunate (first day: 4 mg/kg body weight, observed intake; and 2 mg/kg body weight on the following days with nonobserved drug intake) yielded a PCR-corrected Day 28 cure rate of 90% (45 of 50 patients; CI 78–97%) in Gabonese children aged between 2 and 18 months. Artesunate was well tolerated, and no severe adverse events were reported.