Ye-ebiyo Y, Pollack R, Kiszewski A, Spielman A, 2003. Enhancement of development of larval Anopheles arabiensis by proximity to flowering maize (Zea mays) in turbid water and when crowded. Am J Trop Med Hyg68:748–752.
Ye-ebiyo Y, Pollack R, Kiszewski A, Spielman A, 2003. Enhancement of development of larval Anopheles arabiensis by proximity to flowering maize (Zea mays) in turbid water and when crowded. Am J Trop Med Hyg68:748–752.)| false
Central Statistical Authority, 1994. Population and Housing Census in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Central Statistical Authority.
McCann JC, 1995. People of the Plow: An Agricultural History of Ethiopia. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
McCann JC, 2005. Maize and Grace: Africa’s Encounter with a New World Crop, 1500–2000. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Zegeye T, Haileye A, 2001. Adoption of Improved Maize Technologies and Inorganic Fertilizer in Northwestern Ethiopia. Research Report No. 40. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization.
Kebede A, 2002. Overview of the History of Malaria Epidemics in Ethiopia. Paper Presented at the Workshop on Capacity Building on Malaria Control in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Conway D, Mould C, Bewket W, 2004. Over one century of rainfall and temperature observations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Int J Climatol24:77–91.
Conway D, Mould C, Bewket W, 2004. Over one century of rainfall and temperature observations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Int J Climatol24:77–91.)| false
Moshkovsky SD, Rashina MG, 1951. Epidemiology and Medical Parasitology for Entomologists. Moscow. Unknown publisher. Cited in Detinova, TS, 1962. Age-Grouping Methods in Diptera of Medical Importance with Special Reference to Some Vectors of Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization.
1 Ethiopian Ministry of Health/World Health Organization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; African Studies Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts: Center for National Health Development in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Although maize pollen is known to provide nutrition for larval anopheline mosquitoes, the epidemiologic relationship between maize agriculture and malaria transmission has never been defined. To determine whether recent changes in malaria transmission in Ethiopia might be linked to the spread of maize as a commercial crop, we compared malaria transmission and maize cultivation intensity in 21 villages in the Bure District of northwestern Ethiopia where maize cultivation has recently expanded. The cumulative incidence in high maize cultivation areas was 9.5 times higher than in areas with less maize. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test results showed that malaria cases were not distributed evenly among categories of maize cultivation intensity, (χ2 = 1,578, P < 0.001). A Poisson regression suggested that the intensity of maize cultivation, controlled for differences in elevation between sites, was positively and significantly correlated with malaria incidence. Thus, the intensity of maize cultivation was associated with exacerbated human risk of malaria in Bure.
Copyright 2005 The American Society of Tropical Medicine 2005