• 1

    Yemane Y, Pollack R, Spielman A, 2000. Enhanced development in nature of larval Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes feeding on maize pollen. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 63 :90–93.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Ye-ebiyo Y, Pollack R, Kiszewski A, Spielman A, 2003. Enhancement of development of larval Anopheles arabiensis by proximity to flowering maize (Zea mays) in turbid water and when crowded. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :748–752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Nyanjom SR, Chen H, Gebre-Michael T, Bekele E, Shilulu J, Githure J, Beier JC, Yan G, 2003. Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Ethiopia and Eritrea. J Hered 94 :457–463.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Ministry of Health, Ethiopia, 2001. The National Five-year Strategic Malaria Control Plan-2001–2005. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ministry of Health, Ethiopia.

  • 5

    Tulu A, 1993. Malaria. Kloos H, Zein ZA, eds. Ecology and Health and Disease in Ethiopia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 341–352.

  • 6

    Woyessa A, Gebre-Michael T, Ali A, Kebede D, 2002. Malaria in Addis Ababa and its environs: assessment of magnitude and distribution. Ethiopian J Health Dev 16 :147–155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Fontaine RE, Najjar AE, Prince JS, 1961. The 1958 malaria epidemic in Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 10 :795–803.

  • 8

    Ameneshewa B, Service MW, 1996. The relationship between female body size and survival rate of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia. Med Vet Entomol 10 :170–172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Central Statistical Authority, 1994. Population and Housing Census in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Central Statistical Authority.

  • 10

    McCann JC, 1995. People of the Plow: An Agricultural History of Ethiopia. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

  • 11

    McCann JC, 2005. Maize and Grace: Africa’s Encounter with a New World Crop, 1500–2000. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • 12

    Zegeye T, Haileye A, 2001. Adoption of Improved Maize Technologies and Inorganic Fertilizer in Northwestern Ethiopia. Research Report No. 40. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization.

  • 13

    Kebede A, 2002. Overview of the History of Malaria Epidemics in Ethiopia. Paper Presented at the Workshop on Capacity Building on Malaria Control in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  • 14

    Conway D, Mould C, Bewket W, 2004. Over one century of rainfall and temperature observations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Int J Climatol 24 :77–91.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Moshkovsky SD, Rashina MG, 1951. Epidemiology and Medical Parasitology for Entomologists. Moscow. Unknown publisher. Cited in Detinova, TS, 1962. Age-Grouping Methods in Diptera of Medical Importance with Special Reference to Some Vectors of Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization.

 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NEW EVIDENCE OF THE EFFECTS OF AGRO-ECOLOGIC CHANGE ON MALARIA TRANSMISSION

View More View Less
  • 1 Ethiopian Ministry of Health/World Health Organization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; African Studies Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts: Center for National Health Development in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Although maize pollen is known to provide nutrition for larval anopheline mosquitoes, the epidemiologic relationship between maize agriculture and malaria transmission has never been defined. To determine whether recent changes in malaria transmission in Ethiopia might be linked to the spread of maize as a commercial crop, we compared malaria transmission and maize cultivation intensity in 21 villages in the Bure District of northwestern Ethiopia where maize cultivation has recently expanded. The cumulative incidence in high maize cultivation areas was 9.5 times higher than in areas with less maize. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test results showed that malaria cases were not distributed evenly among categories of maize cultivation intensity, (χ2 = 1,578, P < 0.001). A Poisson regression suggested that the intensity of maize cultivation, controlled for differences in elevation between sites, was positively and significantly correlated with malaria incidence. Thus, the intensity of maize cultivation was associated with exacerbated human risk of malaria in Bure.

Save