• 1

    WHO, 1999. Global surveillance and control of hepatitis C. Report of a WHO Consultation organized in collaboration with the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board, Antwerp, Belgium. J Viral Hepat 6 :35–47.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Boyer N, Marcellin P, 2000. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hepatitis C. J Hepatol 32 :98–112.

  • 3

    Madhava V, Burgess C, Drucker E, 2002. Epidemiology of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Infect Dis 2 :293–302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Memon M, Memon M, 2002. Hepatitis C: an epidemiological review. J Viral Hepat 9 :84–100.

  • 5

    Ceci O, Margiotta M, Marello F, Francavilla R, Loizzi P, Francavilla A, Mautone A, Impedovo L, Ierardi E, Mastroianni M, Bettocchi S, Selvaggi L, 2001. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus in a cohort of 2,447 HIV-seronegative pregnant women: a 24-month prospective study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 33 :570–575.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Agha S, Sherif L, Allam M, Fawzy M, 1998. Transplacental transmission of hepatitis C virus in HIV-negative mothers. Res Virol 149 :229–234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Conte D, Fraquelli M, Prati D, Colucci A, Minola E, 2000. Prevalence and clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and rate of HCV vertical transmission in a cohort of 15,250 pregnant women. Hepatology 31 :751–755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Kage M, Ogasawara S, Kosai K, Nakashima E, Shimamatsu K, Kojiro M, Kimura A, Fujisawa T, Matsukuma Y, Ito Y, Kondo S, Kawano K, Sata M, 1997. Hepatitis C virus RNA present in saliva but absent in breast-milk of the hepatitis C carrier mother. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 12 :518–521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Roberts E, Yeung L, 2002. Maternal-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 36 :S106–S113.

  • 10

    Zanetti AR, Tanzi E, Newell ML, 1999. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. J Hepatol 31 (Suppl 1):96–100.

  • 11

    Dal Molin G, D’Agaro P, Ansaldi F, Ciana G, Fertz C, Alberico S, Campello C, 2002. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus: rate of infection and assessment of viral load and IgM anti-HCV as risk factors. J Med Virol 67 :137–142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Thomas S, Newell M, Peckham C, Ades A, Hall A, 1998. A review of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertical transmission: risks of transmission to infants born to mothers with and without HCV viraemia or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Int J Epidemiol 27 :108–117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Okamoto N, Murakami K, Iitsuka H, Matsuda T, Shiraki H, 2000. Prospective reevaluation of risk factors in mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus: high virus load, vaginal delivery, and negative anti-NS4 antibody. J Infect Dis 182 :1511–1514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Kumar R, Frossad P, Hughes P, 1997. Seroprevalence and mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C in asymptomatic Egyptian women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 75 :177–182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Stoszek S, Fix A, Narooz S, El Kafrawy S, Saleh S, Kassern E, Hawash Y, Baligh H, El Henawy I, Thomas Strickland G, 2001. Mother-to-infant HCV transmission in a Nile Delta community: preliminary results. J Hepatol 34 :165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Benjelloun S, Bahbouhi B, Sekkat S, Bennani A, Hda N, Benslimane A, 1996. Anti-HCV seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection in Moroccan population groups. Res Virol 147 :247–255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Kassem AS, el-Nawawy AA, Massoud MN, el-Nazar SY, Sobhi EM, 2000. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its vertical transmission in Egyptian pregnant women and their newborns. J Trop Pediatr 46 :231–233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Menendez C, Sanchez-Tapias J, Kahigwa E, Mshinda H, Costa J, Vidal J, Acosta C, Lopez-Labrador X, Olmedo E, Navia M, Tanner M, Rodes J, Alonso P, 1999. Prevalence and mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis viruses B, C, and E in Southern Tanzania. J Med Virol 58 :215–220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Ayouba A, Tene G, Cunin P, Foupouapouognigni Y, Menu E, Kfutwah A, Thonnon J, Scarlatti G, Monny-Lobe M, Eteki N, Kouanfack C, Tardy M, Leke R, Nkam M, Nlend A, Barre-Sinoussi F, Martin P, Nerrienet E, 2003. Low rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 after nevirapine intervention in a pilot public health program in Yaoundé, Cameroon. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 34 :274–280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Vranckx R, Alisjahbana A, Meheus A, 1999. Hepatitis B virus vaccination and antenatal transmission of HBV markers to neonates. J Viral Hepat 6 :135–139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Njouom R, Pasquier C, Ayouba A, Sandres-Saune K, Mfoupouendoun J, Mony Lobe M, Tene G, Thonnon J, Izopet J, Nerrienet E, 2003. Hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Yaounde, Cameroon: Prevalence, viremia, and genotypes. J Med Virol 69 :384–390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Takeuchi T, Katsume A, Tanaka T, Abe A, Inoue K, Tsukiyama-Kohara K, Kawaguchi R, Tanaka S, Kohara M, 1999. Real-Time detection system for quantification of hepatitis C Virus genome. Gastroenterology 116 :636–205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Sandres-Saune K, Deny P, Pasquier C, Thibaut V, Duverlie G, Izopet J, 2003. Determining Hepatitis C genotype by analysing the sequence of NS5b region. J Virol Method 109 :187–193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Thompson J, Gibson T, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins D, 1997. The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25 :4876–4882.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Kumar S, Tamura K, Jakobsen IB, Nei M, 2001. MEGA2: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software. Bioinformatics 17 :1244–1245.

  • 26

    Robertson B, Myers G, Howard C, Brettin T, Bukh J, Gaschen B, Gojobori T, Maertens G, Mizokami M, Nainan O, Netesov S, Nishioka K, Shini T, Simmonds P, Smith D, Stuyver L, Weiner A, 1998. Classification, nomenclature, and database development for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and related viruses: proposals for standardization. International Committee on Virus Taxonomy. Arch Virol 143 :2493–2503.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Njouom R, Pasquier C, Ayouba A, Gessain A, Froment A, Mfoupouendoun J, Pouillot R, Dubois M, Sandres-Saune K, Thonnon J, Izopet J, Nerrienet E, 2003. High rate of hepatitis C virus infection and predominance of genotype 4 among elderly inhabitants of a remote village of the rain forest of South Cameroon. J Med Virol 71 :219–225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Trimoulet P, Halfon P, Pohier E, Khiri H, Chene G, Fleury H, 2002. Evaluation of the VERSANT HCV RNA 3.0 assay for quantification of hepatitis C virus RNA in serum. J Clin Microbiol 40 :2031–2036.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Ruggieri A, Argentini C, Kouruma F, Chionne P, D’Ugo E, Spada E, Dettori S, Sabbatani S, Rapicetta M, 1996. Heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 variants in West Central Africa (Guinea Conakry). J Gen Virol 77 :2073–2076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Jeannel D, Fretz C, Traore Y, Kohdjo N, Bigot A, Pe Gamy E, Jourdan G, Kourouma K, Maertens G, Fumoux F, Fournel J, Stuyver L, 1998. Evidence for high genetic diversity and long-term endemicity of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa. J Med Virol 55 :92–97.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Candotti D, Temple J, Sarkodie F, Allain J-P, 2003. Frequent recovery and broad genotype 2 diversity characterize hepatitis C virus infection in Ghana, West Africa. J Virol 77 :7914–7923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Rouet F, Chaix M, Inwoley A, Msellati P, Viho I, Combe P, Leroy V, Dabis F, Rouzioux C, 2004. HBV and HCV prevalence and viraemia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire: the ANRS 1236 study. J Med Virol 74 :34–40.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Laurent C, Henzel D, Mulanga-Kabeya C, Maertens G, Larouze B, Delaporte E, 2001. Seroepidemiological survey of hepatitis C virus among commercial sex workers and pregnant women in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Int J Epidemiol 30 :872–877.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Ahmed S, Cuevas L, Brabin B, Kazembe P, Broadhead R, Verhoeff F, Hart C, 1998. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C and HIV in Malawian pregnant women. J Infect 37 :248–251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Ndumbe P, Skalsky J, Joller-Jemelka H, 1994. Seroprevalence of hepatitis and HIV infection among rural pregnant women in Cameroon. APMIS 102 :662–666.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Raghuraman S, Subramaniam T, Daniel D, Sridharan G, Abraham P, 2003. Occurrence of false positives during testing for antibodies to hepatitis C virus among volunteer blood donors in India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41 :1788–1790.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Seeff L, 2002. Natural history of chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 36 :S35–S46.

  • 38

    Nkengasong J, Nyambi P, Claeys H, De Beenhouwer H, Collart J, Ayuk J, Ndumbe P, 1995. Predominantly hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 and 2 are found in Cameroon. J Infect Dis 171 :1380–1381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Ndjomou J, Pybus OG, Matz B, 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis C virus isolates indicates a unique pattern of endemic infection in Cameroon. J Gen Virol 84 :2333–2341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Roudot-Thoraval F, Pawlotsky J, Thiers V, Deforges L, Girollet P, Guillot F, Huraux C, Aumont P, Brechot C, Dhumeaux D, 1993. Lack of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative women: a prospective study with hepatitis C virus RNA testing. Hepatology 17 :772–777.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Marcellin P, Bernuau J, Martinot-Peignoux M, Larzul D, Xu L, Tran S, Bezeaud A, Guimont M, Levardon M, Aumont P, 1993. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in asymptomatic anti-HIV1 negative pregnant women and their children. Dig Dis Sci 38 :2151–2155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Reinus JF, Leikin EL, Alter HJ, Cheung L, Shindo M, Jett B, Piazza S, Shih JW, 1992. Failure to detect vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus. Ann Intern Med 117 :881–886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43

    Fischler B, Lindh G, Lindgren S, Forsgren M, Von Sydow M, Sangfelt P, Alaeus A, Harland L, Enockson E, Nemeth A, 1996. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus infection. Scand J Infect Dis 28 :353–356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    Pipan C, Amici S, Astori G, Ceci G, Botta G, 1996. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus in low-risk pregnant women. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15 :116–120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Jabeen T, Cannon B, Hogan J, Crowley M, Devereux C, Fanning L, Kenny-Walsh E, Shanahan F, Whelton MJ, 2000. Pregnancy and pregnancy outcome in hepatitis C type 1b. QJM 93 :597–601.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    Tao Y, Cao Y, 1993. Modulation of interferon secretion by concanavalin A and interleukin-2 in first trimester placental explants in vitro. J Reprod Immunol 24 :201–212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    Chard T, Craig P, Menabawey M, Lee C, 1986. Alpha interferon in human pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 93 :1145–1149.

  • 48

    Duc-Goiran P, Chany C, Doly J, 1989. Unusually large interferon-alpha-like mRNAs and high expression of interleukin-6 in human fetal annexes. J Biol Chem 264 :16507–16511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49

    Eyster M, Diamondstone L, Lien J, Ehmann W, Quan S, Goedert J, 1993. Natural history of hepatitis C virus infection in multi-transfused hemophiliacs: effect of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus. The Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 6 :602–610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50

    Sagnelli E, Coppola N, Messina V, Di Caprio D, Marrocco C, Marotta A, Onofrio M, Scolastico C, Filippini P, 2002. HBV superinfection in hepatitis C virus chronic carriers, viral interaction, and clinical course. Hepatology 36 :1285–1291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51

    Gervais A, Bacq Y, Bernuau J, Martinot M, Auperin A, Boyer N, Kilani A, Erlinger S, Valla D, Marcellin P, 2000. Decrease in serum ALT and increase in serum HCV RNA during pregnancy in women with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 32 :293–299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    Guay L, Musoke P, Fleming T, Bagenda D, Allen M, Nakabiito C, Sherman J, Bakaki P, Ducar C, Deseyve M, Emel L, Mirochnick M, Fowler M, Mofenson L, Miotti P, Dransfield K, Bray D, Mmiro F, Jackson J, 1999. Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: HIVNET 012 randomised trial. Lancet 354 :795–802.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53

    Hershow R, Riester K, Lew J, Quinn T, Mofenson L, Davenny K, Landesman S, Cotton D, Hanson I, Hillyer G, Tang H, Thomas D, 1997. Increased vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from hepatitis C virus-coinfected mothers. Women and Infants Transmission Study. J Infect Dis 176 :414–420.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54

    Mwapasa V, Rogerson S, Molyneux M, Abrams E, Kamwendo D, Lema V, Tadesse E, Chaluluka E, Wilson P, Meshnick S, 2004. The effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on peripheral and placental HIV-1 RNA concentrations in pregnant Malawian women. AIDS 18 :1051–1059.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55

    Xiao L, Owen S, Rudolph D, Lal R, Lal A, 1998. Plasmodium falciparum antigen-induced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is mediated through induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Infect Dis 177 :437–445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56

    Ayouba A, Nerrienet E, Menu E, Lobe MM, Thonnon J, Leke RJ, Barre-Sinoussi F, Martin P, Cunin P, 2003. Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in relation to the season in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69 :447–449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 148 87 9
PDF Downloads 29 18 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

LOW RISK OF MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS IN YAOUNDÉ, CAMEROON: THE ANRS 1262 STUDY

View More View Less
  • 1 Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaoundé, Cameroun; Laboratoire de Virologie, CHU Toulouse Purpan, Toulouse, France; Centre Mère Enfant, Fondation Chantal Biya, Yaoundé, Cameroun; Maternité Principale, Hôpital Central, Yaoundé, Cameroun
Restricted access

To assess mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Cameroon, 5,008 pregnant women were screened for HCV antibodies. Eighty-nine (1.8%) were HCV-antibody (HCV-Ab) positive. Among these, 7 (7.9%) were HBsAg positive, 6 (6.7%) HIV-positive, and one (1.1%) was co-infected by both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV. Sixty-eight (76%) out of 89 HCV-Ab positive pregnant women were HCV-RNA positive. The HCV genotype determination indicated the predominance of genotype 4 (45.3%), followed by the genotypes 1 (28.1%) and 2 (26.6%). The mean HCV-RNA levels of 41 women at the time of delivery was 4.8 (range 0.06–34.7) × 106 RNA copies/mL. Finally, 35 women delivered 36 live children. None of those screened at 6 weeks and 6 months of age were HCV-RNA positive. The failure to detect HCV vertical transmission suggests that the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is not a major route of HCV transmission in Cameroon.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: E. Nerrienet, Laboratoire de virologie, Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, BP 1274 Yaoundé, Cameroon, Telephone: (237) 223 18 03, Fax: (237) 223 15 64, E-mail: nerrienet@pasteur.yaounde.org. (Present address: HIV and Hepatitis Unity, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, BP983 Phnom Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia, Fax: (855) 12 725 606, E-mail: enerrienet@pasteur-kh.org.)
Save