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ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS AND MANAGEMENT OF DENGUE PATIENTS WITH UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

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  • 1 Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, and Department of Infection Control, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China
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There are 100 million cases of dengue infection, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually due to dengue worldwide. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common type of severe hemorrhage in dengue fever. However, there are no reports about the clinical applications of endoscopic therapy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGI) in dengue patients. From June 17, 2002 to January 30, 2003, 1,156 patients with confirmed dengue virus infection were treated at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan. We analyzed those patients who had received endoscopic therapy for UGI. The characteristic endoscopic findings, therapeutic courses, and amount of blood component transfused were collected from their charts for statistical analysis. Among the 1,156 dengue patients, 97 (8.4%) had complications of UGI bleeding during hospitalization. The endoscopic findings included hemorrhagic (and/or erosive) gastritis in 67% of the patients, gastric ulcer in 57.7%, duodenal ulcer in 26.8%, and esophageal ulcer in 3.1%. Of the 73 patients with peptic ulcer, 42 (57.5%) met the endoscopic criteria (recent hemorrhage) for endoscopic hemostasis therapy. Peptic ulcer patients with recent hemorrhage required more transfusions with packed red blood cells (P = 0.002) and fresh frozen plasma (P = 0.05) than those without recent hemorrhage. Among these 42 patients with recent hemorrhage, endoscopic injection therapy was conducted in 15 patients (group A). The other 27 patients (group B) did not receive endoscopic therapy. After endoscopy, patients in group A required more transfusions with packed red blood cells (P = 0.03) and fresh frozen plasma (P = 0.014) than did patients in group B. There were no significant differences between groups A and B in duration of hospital stay and amounts of transfused platelet concentrate after endoscopy. Medical treatment with blood transfusion is the mainstay of management of UGI bleeding in dengue patients. Patients having peptic ulcer with recent hemorrhage require more transfusions with packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma for management of UGI bleeding than those without recent hemorrhage. However, when peptic ulcer with recent hemorrhage is encountered during the endoscopic procedure, endoscopic injection therapy is not an effective adjuvant treatment of hemostasis in dengue patients with UGI bleeding.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: King-Wah Chiu, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung, 83305, Taiwan, Republic of China, Telephone: 886-7-731-7123 extension 8301, Fax: 886-7-731-8762, E-mail: chiuku@ms14.hinet.net.
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