LATE BENEFITS 10–18 YEARS AFTER DRUG THERAPY FOR INFECTION WITH SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM IN KWALE DISTRICT, COAST PROVINCE, KENYA

JOHN H. OUMA Biomedical Science and Technology Programme, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Nairobi X-Ray Services and Department of Radiology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

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CHARLES H. KING Biomedical Science and Technology Programme, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Nairobi X-Ray Services and Department of Radiology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

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ERIC M. MUCHIRI Biomedical Science and Technology Programme, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Nairobi X-Ray Services and Department of Radiology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

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PETER MUNGAI Biomedical Science and Technology Programme, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Nairobi X-Ray Services and Department of Radiology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

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DAVY K. KOECH Biomedical Science and Technology Programme, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Nairobi X-Ray Services and Department of Radiology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

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EDMUND IRERI Biomedical Science and Technology Programme, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Nairobi X-Ray Services and Department of Radiology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

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PHILIP MAGAK Biomedical Science and Technology Programme, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Nairobi X-Ray Services and Department of Radiology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

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HILDA KADZO Biomedical Science and Technology Programme, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Nairobi X-Ray Services and Department of Radiology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

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Late benefits of remote antischistosomal therapy were estimated among long-term residents of an area with high transmission of Schistosoma haematobium (Msambweni, Kenya) by comparing infection and disease prevalence in two local adult cohorts. We compared 132 formerly treated adults (given treatment in childhood or adolescence ≥ 10 years previously) compared with 132 age- and sex-matched adults from the same villages who had not received prior treatment. The prevalence of current infection, hematuria, and ultrasound bladder abnormalities were significantly lower among the previously treated group, who were found to be free of severe bladder disease. Nevertheless, heavy infection was equally prevalent (2–3%) in both study groups, and present rates of hydronephrosis were not significantly different. Therapy given in childhood or adolescence appears to improve risk for some but not all manifestations of S. haematobium infection in later adult life. Future prospective studies of continued treatment into adulthood will better define means to obtain optimal, community-based control of S. haematobium-related disease in high-risk locations.

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