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The purpose of this study was to determine whether HIV-1 infected patients in our community were more susceptible to Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infection than non-HIV-infected individuals. The prevalence and frequency of invasive amebiasis was determined in 203 HIV+/AIDS subjects and 140 close relatives or sexual partners, all of whom were HIV−. Anti–E. histolytica antibodies (IgG, IgA) were assessed as indicators of E. histolytica invasive infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the characterization of the Entamoeba species. The prevalence estimated with PCR data showed that E. histolytica infection was more common in the HIV+/AIDS group (25.32%), than in HIV− contacts (18.46%). E. histolytica + E. dispar infection was more frequent in HIV+/AIDS patients (13.3%), than in HIV− contacts (0.7%). E. histolytica and/or E. dispar infection was highly prevalent in HIV+/AIDS patients (34.1%) without evidence of recent or current invasive disease. Contacts of HIV+/AIDS patients who were infected with E. histolytica were asymptomatic cyst passers. Our results suggest that E. histolytica strains prevalent in the studied community appear to be of low pathogenic potential.