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A newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects immunoglobulin G antibodies to the 27-kDa Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite surface antigen was used to test 4,097 sera collected from pregnant women in 6 communities in British Columbia, Canada, between January 1996, and December 1997. Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis occurred in two of the study communities during the period of follow-up, and ELISA seropositivity was high in all six communities during the study period (77% positive to 92% positive). In the community with the largest outbreak, levels of antibody to the 27-kDa antigen increased rapidly and then decayed to background levels within 3–4 months of the peak of the epidemic curve. Trends in serologic reactivity were complex in all communities, and increased antibody levels not related temporally to known waterborne outbreaks were also observed. Serological assays may provide more accurate information regarding community levels of Cryptosporidium infection.