Belli A, Garcia D, Palacios X, Rodriguez B, Valle S, Videa E, Tinoco E, Marin F, Harris E, 1999. Widespread atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) chagasi in Nicaragua. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :380–385.
Lucas CM, Franke ED, Cachay MI, Tejada A, Cruz ME, Kreutzer RD, Barker DC, McCann SHE, Watts DM, 1998. Geographical distribution and clinical description of leishmaniasis cases in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :312–317.
Hashiguchi Y, Gomez EA, de Coronel VV, Mimori T, Kawabata M, Furuya M, Nonaka S, Takaoka H, Alexander JB, Quizhpe AM, Grimaldi G Jr, Kreutzer RD, Tesh RB, 1991. Andean leishmaniasis in Ecuador caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana and L. major-like parasites. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 :202–217.
Turetz ML, Machado PR, Ko AI, Alves F, Bittencourt A, Almeida RP, Mobashery N, Johnson WD Jr, Carvalho EM, 2002. Disseminated leishmaniasis: A new and emerging form of leishmaniasis observed in Northeastern Brazil. J Infect Dis 186 :1829–1834.
Couppie P, Clyti E, Sainte-Marie D, Dedet JP, Carme B, Pradinaud R, 2004. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania guyanensis: Case of a patient with 425 lesions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 :558–560.
Lazo R, Hashiguchi Y, 1994. Generalized cutaneous leishmaniasis: a parasitologically confirmed case in Ecuador. Hashiguchi Y, ed. Studies on New World Leishmaniasis and Its Transmission, with Particular Reference to Ecuador. Research Report Series 4. Japan: Kyowa Printing, 93–98.
Paes-Oliveira M, 1997. Leishmaniasis recidiva cutis. Ann Bras Dermatol 52 :353–359.
Karincaoglu Y, Esrefoglu M, Ozcan H, 2004. Atypical clinical form of cutaneous leishmaniasis: erysipeloid form. Int J Dermatol 43 :827–829.
Iftikhar N, Bari I, Ejaz A, 2003. Rare variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis: Whitlow, paronychia and sporotrichoid. Int J Dermatol 42 :807–809.
Raja KM, Khan AA, Hameed A, Rahman S, 1998. Unusual clinical variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan. Br J Dermatol 139 :111–113.
Grimaldi G Jr, Tesh RB, 1993. Leishmaniasis of the New World: current concepts and implications for future research. Clin Microbiol Rev 6 :230–250.
Shaw JJ, 2002. The ecology of leishmaniasis and the diversity of leishmanial species in Central and South America. Farrel JP, ed. World Class Parasites: Leishmania. Volume 4. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 11–31.
Barral A, Pedral-Sampaio D, Grimaldi G Jr, Momen H, McMahon-Pratt D, Ribeiro de Jesus A, Almeida R, Badaro R, Barral-Netto M, Carvalho EM, Johnson WD Jr, 1991. Leishmaniasis in Bahia, Brazil: evidence that Leishmania amazonensis produces a wide spectrum of clinical disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 :536–546.
Evans D, 1989. Handbook on Isolation, Characterization and cryopreservation of Leishmania. WHO/TDR, 12-11 Geneva, Switzerland, 1–45.
Sneath PHA, Sokal RR, 1973. Sneath PHA, Sokal RR, eds. Numerical Taxonomy. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1–487.
Armijos RX, Weigel MM, Izurieta R, Racines J, Zurita C, Herrera W, Vega M, 1997. The epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador. Trop Med Int Health 2 :140–152.
Hepburn NC, 2000. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Exp Dermatol 25 :367–370.
Griffiths WAD, 1987. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peters W, Killick-Kendrick R, eds. The Leishmaniases in Biology and Medicine. Volume 2. London: Academic Press, 617–636.
Bittencourt AL, Costa JML, Carvalho EM, Barral A, 1993. Leishmaniasis recidiva cutis in American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol 32 :802–805.
World Health Organization, 1984. The Leishmaniases. Technical Report Series 701. Geneva: WHO, 1–140.
Osorio LE, Castillo CM, Ochoa MT, 1998. Mucosal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis in Colombia: clinical characteristics. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :49–52.
Bryceson ADM, 1986. Clinical variations associated with taxa of Leishmania. Col Int CNRS/Interm 1948 Montpelier, France: IMEEE, 221–228.
Rosenthal E, Marty P, del Giudice P, Pradier C, Ceppi C, Gastaut JA, Fichoux Y, Cassuto JP, 2000. HIV and Leishmania coinfection: a review of 91 cases with focus on atypical locations of Leishmania.Clin Infect Dis 31 :1093–1095.
Couppie P, Clyti E, Sobesky M, Bissuel F, Del Giudice P, Sainte-Marie D, Dedet JP, Carme B, Pradinaud R, 2004. Comparative study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and non-HIV-infected patients in French Guiana. Br J Dermatol 151 :1165–1171.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||257||106||3|
In recent times, there has been an increase in the number of reports for new and rare variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Here, we describe three unusual clinical forms of CL identified in Ecuadorian children. A total of 131 patients with CL were diagnosed over a 2-year period of active search. In 3 (2.29%), the lesions were very unusual; these included erysipeloid, recidiva cutis (LRC), and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). The erysipeloid case is characterized by erythematous and indurated plaque seen on the face of a 5-year-old boy; the LRC one is differentiated by slowly progressing red-brown papules around large scars of healed sores in a 6-year-old girl, and the DL case is characterized by dozens of cutaneous ulcers distributed in the whole body of a 1-year-old girl. Leishmania parasites were isolated by lesion aspirate and analyzed by the technique multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). All three isolates were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis. These distinct clinical variants rarely have been reported previously in the American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and for the first time L. (V.) panamensis was identified as the etiologic agent. Our cases extend the spectrum of clinical presentations in New World leishmaniasis.