Caballero-Salcedo A, Viveros-Rogel M, Salvatierra B, Tapia-Conyer R, Sepúlveda-Amor J, Gutiérrez G, Ortíz-Ortíz L, 1994. Seroepidemiology of amebiasis in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 :412–419.
World Health Organization, 1997. World Health Organization/ Pan American Health Organization/UNESCO report of a consultation of experts on amoebiasis. Wkly Epidemiol Rec WHO 72 :97–99.
Diamond LS, Clark CG, 1993. A redescription of Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903 (Emended Walker, 1911) separating it from Entamoeba dispar Brumpt, 1925. J Eukariot Microbiol 40 :340–344.
Braga L, Gomes ML, Da Silva MW, Façanha FE, Fiuza L, Mann BJ, 2001. Household epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica infection in an urban community in Northeastern Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 :268–271.
Haque R, Ali IM, Petri WA, 1999. Prevalence and immunce response to Entamoeba histolytic infection in preschool children in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 :1031–1034.
Gathiram V, Jackson TF, 1987. A longitudinal study of asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic zymodemes of Entamoeba histolytica. S Afr Med J 72 :669–672.
Ramos F, Valdez E, Morán P, González E, Padilla G, Gómez A, Ramiro M, Melendro EI, Muñoz O, Clark G, Ximénez C, 2000. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in a highly endemic rural population. Arch Med Res 31 :S34–S35.
Ash RL, Orihel TC, 1987. Collection and preservation of faeces. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, eds. Parasites: A Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification. Chicago, IL: ASCP Press, 5–14.
Acuña-Soto R, Samuelson J, De Girolami P, Zárate L, Millan-Velasco F, Schoolmick G, Wirth D, 1993. Application of the polymerase chain reaction to the epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48 :58–70.
Clark CG, 1993. PCR detection of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and differentiation from other intestinal protozoa by riboprinting. Persing C, Smith TE, White TJ, eds. Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 468–474.
Clark GC, Diamond LS, 1992. Differentiation of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica from other intestinal protozoa by ribo-printing. Arch Med Res 23 :15–16.
Ayeh-Kumi PF, Ali IM, Lockhart LA, Gilchrist CA, Petri WA Jr, Haque R, 2001. Entamoeba histolytica: Genetic diversity of clinical isolates from Bangladesh as demostrated by polymorphisms in the serine-rich gene. Ex Parasitol 99 :80–88.
Valenzuela O, Ramos F, Morán P, González E, Valadez A, Gómez A, Melendro EI, Ramiro M, Muñoz O, Ximénez C, 2001. Persistence of secretory antiamoebic antibodies in patients with invasive intestinal or hepatic amoebiasis. Parasitol Res 87 :849–852.
Okazaki Y, Sumi Y, Niimi A, Furuta H, Sawaki Y, Ueda M, Kaneda T, 1991. Circadian changes of secretory IgA concentration in saliva. M Tsuchiya M, Nagura H, Hibi T, Moro I, eds. Frontiers of Mucosal Immunology, Vol. 1. Amsterdam: Excerta Medica, 263–266.
Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Morgenster H, 1982. Measures of potential impact and summary of the measures. Kleinbaun DG, eds. Epidemiological Research, Principles and Quantitative Methods. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 159–180.
Secretaria de Salud, 2001. Epidemiologia. Información epidemiológica de morbilidad 2000. Mexico D.F., Secretaría de Salud: 15–32.
Walsh JA, 1986. Problems in recognition and diagnosis of amoebiasis: estimations of the global magnitude of morbidity and mortality. Rev Infect Dis 8 :228–238.
Tsutsumi V, Ramírez-Rosales A, Lanz-Mendoza H, Shibayama M, Chávez B, Rangel-López E, Martínez-Palomo A, 1992. Entamoeba histolytica: erythrophagocytosis, collagenolysis, and liver abscess production as virulence markers. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 :170–172.
Muñoz ML, Rojkind M, Calderon C, 1984. Entamoeba histolytica: collagenolytic activity and virulence. J Protozool 31 :468–470.
Braga L, Mendonca Y, Paiva CA, Sales A, Cavalcante AL, Man BJ, 1998. Seropositivity for and intestinal colonization with Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in individuals in Northeastern Brazil. J Clin Microbiol 36 :3044–3045.
Abd-Alla MD, Ravdin JI, 2002. Diagnosis of amoebic colitis by antigen capture ELISA in patients presenting with acute diarrhoea in Cairo, Egypt. Trop Med Int Health 7 :365–370.
Abb-Alla MD, Jackson T, Reddy S, Ravdin J, 2000. Diagnosis of invasive amoebiasis by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay of saliva to detect amoebic lecitin antigen and anti-lectin immunoglobulin G antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 38 :2344–2347.
Del Muro R, Acosta E, Merino E, Glender W, Ortiz-Ortiz L, 1990. Diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis using salivary IgA antibody detection. JID 162 :1360–1365.
Escandon RC, Gomez HJL, Cabral JS, Hernandez RJM, Escobedo J, Olvera JA, 1997. Detection of anti-Entamoeba histolytica IgA salivary antibodies: evaluation of its diagnostic capability in a rural setting. Arch Med Res 28 :S306–S308.
Haque R, Duggal P, Ali IM, Hossain MB, Mondal D, Sack RB, Farr BM, Beaty TH, Petri WA, 2002. Innate and acquired resistance to amebiasis in Bangladeshi children. J Inf Dis 186 :547–552.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||304||91||2|
The frequency of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infection was analyzed in a rural community in the state of Morelos, Mexico, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sociodemographic variables as risk factors for the infection were assessed. Results highlighted the number of individuals with intestinal parasites (43.1%) in the community, indicating extensive fecalism. A high frequency of E. histolytica asymptomatic infection, higher than E. dispar infection (13.8% versus 9.6%), was detected by PCR. Anti-amebic antibody levels (IgG) in serum and saliva (IgA) samples were not associated with E. histolytica intestinal infection. These findings suggest a predominant distribution of E. histolytica strains of low invasive potential in this community.