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Anophelism without malaria has long been recognized. In large irrigation projects, such as that around Niono, Mali, villages in irrigated areas sometimes have more anopheline vectors of malaria than adjacent nonirrigated villages, but overall malaria prevalence is substantially less. One hypothesized explanation for this is high anopheline densities lead to smaller adults, who do not live so long and hence are less efficient at transmitting the disease. We analyzed serial collections from 18 villages in an irrigated area of Mali, measuring correlations between mosquito densities and survival rates, zoophilic rates, and vectorial capacity over the villages and times. Adult density was inversely related to anthropophily and adult survival and its relationship with vectorial capacity was positive at low mosquito densities, flat at intermediate densities, and negative at high densities. This may partly explain why malaria prevalence is low in irrigated villages with high Anopheles density.