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Raoult D, Ndihokubwayo JB, Tissot-Dupont H, Roux V, Faugere B, Abegbinni R, Birtles RJ, 1998. Outbreak of epidemic typhus associated with trench fever in Burundi. Lancet 352 :353–358.
Tarasevich I, Rydkina E, Raoult D, 1998. Outbreak of epidemic typhus in Russia. Lancet 352 :1151.
Brouqui P, Houpikian P, Dupont HT, Toubiana P, Obadia Y, Lafay V, Raoult D, 1996. Survey of the seroprevalence of Bartonella quintana in homeless people. Clin Infect Dis 23 :756–759.
Jackson LA, Spach DH, 1996. Emergence of Bartonella quintana infection among homeless persons. Emerg Infect Dis 2 :141–144.
Sasaki T, Kobayashi M, Agui N, 2002. Detection of Bartonella quintana from body lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae) infesting homeless people in Tokyo by molecular technique. J Med Entomol 39 :427–429.
Brouqui P, Lascola B, Roux V, Raoult D, 1999. Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients. N Engl J Med 340 :184–189.
La Scola B, Rydkina L, Ndihokubwayo JB, Vene S, Raoult D, 2000. Serological differentiation of murine typhus and epidemic typhus using cross-adsorption and Western blotting. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 7 :612–616.
Raoult D, Foucault C, Brouqui P, 2001. Infections in the homeless. Lancet Infect Dis 1 :77–84.
Foucault C, Barrau K, Brouqui P, Raoult D, 2002. Bartonella quintana Bacteremia among homeless people. Clin Infect Dis 35 :684–689.
Brouqui P, Stein A, Tissot-Dupont H, Gallian P, Badiaga S, Rolain JM, Mege JL, La Scola B, Berbis P, Raoult D, 2005. Ectoparasitism and vector-borne diseases in 930 homeless from Marseilles. Medicine 84 :61–68.
Niang M, Brouqui P, Raoult D, 1999. Epidemic typhus imported from Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis 5 :716–718.
Stein A, Purgus R, Olmer M, Raoult D, 1999. Brill-Zinsser disease in France. Lancet 353 :1936.
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Trench fever, a louse-borne disease caused by Bartonella quintana, is reemerging in homeless persons. Epidemic typhus is another life-threatening louse-borne disease caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and known to occur in conditions of war, famine, refugee camps, cold weather, poverty, or lapses in public health. We report the first case of seroconversion to R. prowazekii in a homeless person of Marseilles, France. This was associated with B. quintana bacteremia. Although no outbreaks of typhus have been notified yet in the homeless population, this disease is likely to reemerge in such situation.